Pharmacokinetic and Metabolic Characteristics of Herb-Derived Khellactone Derivatives, A Class of Anti-HIV and Anti-Hypertensive: A Review.
(±)-Praeruptorin A (PA) is the major component of Peucedani Radix. The present study investigated stereoselectivity in PA metabolism in liver microsomes of rats (RLMs) and humans (HLMs), for the first time. PA was enantioseparated by semi-preparative chiral HPLC. Metabolic profiles of the dextrorotatory (dPA) and the levorotatory (lPA) forms in HLMs and RLMs were determined using LC-MS/MS. (-)-cis-Khellactone (D1) prepared from basic hydrolysis of dPA, and (3'R, 4'R)-4'-angeloyl-khellactone (L8) and (3'R, 4'R)-3'-angeloyl-khellactone (L9) isolated from a scale-up incubation of lPA with rat plasma were unambiguously identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Other metabolites were tentatively identified using LC-MS/MS. In the absence of NADPH-regenerating system, dPA remained intact, however, lPA yielded L8 and L9 via a carboxylesterase(s)-mediated process. In the presence of NADPH-regenerating system, lPA produced 9 (L1-9) metabolites in both species, while dPA generated 12 (D1-12) and 6 (D1-3, 6, 9 and 10) metabolites in RLMs and HLMs, respectively. Hydrolysis, oxidation and acyl migration were demonstrated to be the predominant pathways for both enantiomers. Both enantiomers were eliminated faster in RLMs than in HLMs, while lPA showed greater species difference. PA enantiomers exhibited stereoselective metabolism in RLMs and HLMs, implying chiral discrimination in their actions.