Stephen William Hawking CH CBE. 8 January 1942—14 March 2018

  title={Stephen William Hawking CH CBE. 8 January 1942—14 March 2018},
  author={Bernard J. Carr and George F. R. Ellis and G. W. Gibbons and James B. Hartle and Thomas Hertog and Roger Penrose and Malcolm J. Perry and Kip S. Thorne},
  pages={267 - 308}
Stephen Hawking's contributions to the understanding of gravity, black holes and cosmology were truly immense. They began with the singularity theorems in the 1960s followed by his discovery that black holes have an entropy and consequently a finite temperature. Black holes were predicted to emit thermal radiation, what is now called Hawking radiation. He pioneered the study of primordial black holes and their potential role in cosmology. His organization of and contributions to the Nuffield… 



Black hole explosions?

QUANTUM gravitational effects are usually ignored in calculations of the formation and evolution of black holes. The justification for this is that the radius of curvature of space-time outside the

Black Holes and Thermodynamics

A black hole of given mass, angular momentum, and charge can have a large number of different unobservable internal configurations which reflect the possible different initial configurations of the

Brane new world

We study a Randall-Sundrum cosmological scenario consisting of a domain wall in anti\char21{}de Sitter space with a strongly coupled large N conformal field theory living on the wall. The AdS-CFT

Cosmological Event Horizons, Thermodynamics, and Particle Creation

It is shown that the close connection between event horizons and thermodynamics which has been found in the case of black holes can be extended to cosmological models with a repulsive cosmological

The Primordial black hole mass spectrum

We examine what mass spectrum of primordial black holes should result if the early universe consisted of small density fluctuations superposed on a Friedmann background. It is shown that only a

Trace anomaly driven inflation

This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions

Gamma rays from primordial black holes

This paper examines the possibilities of detecting hard ..gamma..-rays produced by the quantum-mechanical decay of small black holes created by inhomogeneities in the early universe. Observations of

Virtual black holes.

  • Hawking
  • Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1996
It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix that does not factorise into an $S$ matrix and its adjoint.

Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems

The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: (1) The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that

Spontaneous Creation of Almost Scale - Free Density Perturbations in an Inflationary Universe

The creation and evolution of energy-density perturbations are analyzed for the "new inflationary universe" scenario proposed by Linde, and Albrecht and Steinhardt. According to the scenario, the