Step-wise evolution of complex chemical defenses in millipedes: a phylogenomic approach

  title={Step-wise evolution of complex chemical defenses in millipedes: a phylogenomic approach},
  author={Juanita Rodriguez and Tappey H Jones and Petra Sierwald and Paul E. Marek and William A. Shear and Michael S. Brewer and Kevin M. Kocot and Jason E. Bond},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth’s biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase… 

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