Endovascular stenting in the management of malignant superior vena cava obstruction: comparing safety, effectiveness, and outcomes between primary stenting and salvage stenting.
To determine the clinical effectiveness and long-term outcome of stent insertion for malignant superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. From June 2010 to April 2016, 47 patients with malignant SVC syndrome were treated with stent insertion in our center. Data regarding the technical success, clinical success, and long-term outcome were collected and analyzed retrospectively. SVC stent insertion was successfully performed in all patients. A total of 65 stents were used. No procedure-related complication occurred in these patients. The mean SVC pressure gradient decreased from 17.8 mmHg before stent insertion to 7.6 mmHg after stent insertion (P < 0.001). Clinical success was 100%. During a mean follow-up period of 6 months (range 10 days–13 months), 25 patients underwent subsequent anti-cancer treatment. Six patients (12.8%) experienced re-obstruction of stent 1 to 189 days (median 76 days) after stent insertion. All patients died during the follow-up. The median stent patency time and survival were 339 and 167 days, respectively. The cumulative 3-, 6-, and 12-month stent patency rates were 93.4, 87.4, and 81.2%, respectively. The cumulative 3-, 6-, and 12-month survival rates were 83, 38.3, and 2.1%, respectively. The independent predictors of prolonging survival after stent insertion were lower tumor stage (P = 0.018) and subsequent anti-cancer treatment after stent insertion (P = 0.009). Stent insertion is a simple, safe, and effective method for patients with malignant SVC syndrome. Subsequent anti-cancer treatment after stent insertion may increase the survival.