What are stem cells? As dentists, why should we be concerned with stem cells? How would stem cells change dental practice? Is it possible to grow a tooth or TMJ with stem cells? This article summarizes the latest stem cell research and development for dental, oral and craniofacial applications. Stem cell research and development will, over time, transform dental practice in a magnitude far greater than did amalgam or dental implants. Metallic alloys, composites and even titanium implants are not permanent solutions. In contrast, stem cell technology will generate native tissue analogs that are compatible with the patient's own.