Status of Danaus plexippus Population in Arizona

  title={Status of Danaus plexippus Population in Arizona},
  author={Gail Morris and Christopher Kline and Scott M. Morris},
ABSTRACT. We report results of a ten year study to understand the distribution, breeding and migration of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Arizona. We observed breeding and migratory monarch populations throughout the state and small overwintering aggregations in some locations. Migration occurred to known migration destinations in both California and Mexico. We found that the destination is not random. Wind significantly affects whether migrating monarchs are recovered. This study… 

Further Insights on the Migration Biology of Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the Pacific Northwest

It is confirmed that the majority of monarchs in Washington and Oregon migrate hundreds of kilometers south during late July–October to overwinter at sites on the California coast, however, some eastern Washington and most Idaho monarchs tended to migrate towards the southeast and may have an alternative winter destination, possibly Mexico.

First Population Study on Winter Breeding Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Urban South Bay of San Francisco, California

It is concluded that monarchs can successfully breed and maintain populations on ornamental milkweeds during winter at urban sites in the South Bay of San Francisco and may still migrate during spring to remain part of the wider western population.

Opening a Window on Southwestern Monarchs: Fall Migrant Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.), Tagged Synchronously in Southeastern Arizona Migrate to Overwintering Regions in Either Southern California or Central Mexico

  • Joe Billings
  • Biology
    The Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society
  • 2019
For the first time wild monarchs tagged in the same location and on the same day, were recovered at overwintering sites in both California and Mexico, indicating that monarch migration dynamics in the western United States are more complex than previously known.

Assessing preference and survival of Danaus plexippus on two western species of Asclepias

Arizona milkweed is recommended for monarch habitat conservation projects in the Southwest within the natural range of Arizona milkweed, but that D. plexippus preference and performance be tested for additional western milkweed species.

Migration and Overwintering in Australian Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): a Review with New Observations and Research Needs

ABSTRACT. Migration and overwintering of Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in south-eastern Australia is reviewed. Overwintering, non-reproductive aggregations of Monarchs were first reported in

Population Biology of Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), at a Milkweed-Rich Summer Breeding Site in Central Washington

  • D. G. James
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society
  • 2016
The use of large, dense areas of milkweed in relatively moist locations with some shade may be an important component of summer breeding of D. plexippus in the arid western United States.

Understanding a migratory species in a changing world: climatic effects and demographic declines in the western monarch revealed by four decades of intensive monitoring

Shifting climatic conditions do not explain the overall, long-term, negative population trajectory observed in the western monarch population, but climatic associations add to the understanding of biotic-abiotic interactions in a migratory butterfly.

Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers

Analyzing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and subunit II gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci from the concatenated COI and COII data set suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene followed by a stable effective female population size of about 6 million over the last 10000 years.

A Method to Project Future Impacts From Threats and Conservation on the Probability of Extinction for North American Migratory Monarch (Danaus plexxipus) Populations

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is currently evaluating the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) for listing under the Endangered Species Act and using the Species Status Assessment (SSA)

Host Plants and Climate Structure Habitat Associations of the Western Monarch Butterfly

The monarch butterfly is one of the most easily recognized and frequently studied insects in the world, and has recently come into the spotlight of public attention and conservation concern because




Data is presented for the first time to show the migration routes of the Western population from the breeding areas in the mountains and west of the mountains to California and to the two overwintering sites in California and Mexico.

Distribution of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in western North America

Analysis of distributions suggests that monarch butterflies in the American West occur primarily along rivers, and there are observations indicating that autumn migrants often follow riparian corridors.

Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America

Analysis of within‐breeding‐season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape.

Altitudes attained by migrating monarch butterflies, Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae), as reported by glider pilots

Glider pilots at four different locations in North America have observed D. plexippus flying at altitudes ranging from 600 to 1250 m. Three of the observers reported that the butterflies were soari...

Host plant pattern and variation in climate predict the location of natal grounds for migratory monarch butterflies in western North America

The breeding grounds of migrant generation monarch butterflies in eastern North America are well known. In stark contrast the location of natal grounds of western migrants has not been delineated. We

Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations

The genetic structure of North American migratory monarch populations, as well as nonmigratory populations in Hawaii and New Zealand are studied to suggest that eastern and western monarchs form one admixed population and that monarchs from Hawaii andNew Zealand have genetically diverged from North American butterflies.

Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857-1995

The present paper reconstructs the history of understanding the migration of the monarch butterfly in North America and reflects the spirit in which Charles Remington, then a graduate student at Harvard, and his friend and colleague Harry Clench founded The Lepidopterists' Society are reflected.

Soaring flight of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae), during the late summer migration in southern Ontario

Adult Danaus plexippus in southern Ontario frequently engage in soaring flight during their late summer migration and utilize both ascending air currents produced by winds blowing up slopes and thermals, which shows the energetic advantages of utilizing soaring flight in terms of extension of maximum range.

The North American Species of Asclepias L

Citizen Scientists and an Iconic Insect : 70 Years and Counting , pp . 13 - 30

  • Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division