Status and Trends for the World’s Kelp Forests

  title={Status and Trends for the World’s Kelp Forests},
  author={Thomas Wernberg and Kira A. Krumhansl and Karen Filbee‐Dexter and Morten Foldager Pedersen},
  journal={World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation},

Toward a conceptual framework for managing and conserving marine habitats: A case study of kelp forests in the Salish Sea

Abstract Kelp forests are in decline across much of their range due to place‐specific combinations of local and global stressors. Declines in kelp abundance can lead to cascading losses of

A review of subtidal kelp forests in Ireland: From first descriptions to new habitat monitoring techniques

Abstract Aim Kelp forests worldwide are important marine ecosystems that foster high primary to secondary productivity and multiple ecosystem services. These ecosystems are increasingly under threat

Patterns and drivers of understory macroalgal assemblage structure within subtidal kelp forests

Kelp species are found along ~ 25% of the world’s coastlines, where they provide myriad of ecological goods and services. However, compared with many other terrestrial and marine vegetated

Impacts of ocean warming on kelp forest ecosystems.

  • D. Smale
  • Environmental Science
    The New phytologist
  • 2019
While kelp responses to climate change vary greatly between ocean basins, regions and species, there is compelling evidence to show that ocean warming poses an unequivocal threat to the persistence of kelp forest ecosystems in coming decades.

A modelled global distribution of the kelp biome

It’s the Little Things: The Role of Microscopic Life Stages in Maintaining Kelp Populations

  • M. Edwards
  • Environmental Science
    Frontiers in Marine Science
  • 2022
Kelp forests are experiencing broad scale declines in abundance and shifts in latitudinal ranges in many areas of the world due to numerous environmental stressors, especially those associated with

Kelp Forest Distribution in the Nordic Region

Kelp forests are productive coastal ecosystems that provide a range of ecosystem services. Mapping the distribution and area occupied by kelp forests is a critical step to identify their ecosystem

Long-term changes in kelp forests in an inner basin of the Salish Sea.

Findings support the hypothesis that kelp beds along wave-sheltered shorelines exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental stressors, and suggest that shorelines with strong currents and deep-water mixing may provide refugia within sheltered systems.

Arctic kelp forests: Diversity, resilience and future

Kelp in the Eastern Canadian Arctic: Current and Future Predictions of Habitat Suitability and Cover

Climate change is transforming marine ecosystems through the expansion and contraction of species’ ranges. Sea ice loss and warming temperatures are expected to expand habitat availability for



Global patterns of kelp forest change over the past half-century

Although global drivers could be affecting kelp forests at multiple scales, local stressors and regional variation in the effects of these drivers dominate kelp dynamics, in contrast to many other marine and terrestrial foundation species.

Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future

The conditions in which kelp forests develop globally and where, why and at what rate they become deforested are reviewed and overfishing appears to be the greatest manageable threat to kelp forest ecosystems over the 2025 time horizon.

Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests

Kelp forests are structurally complex habitats, which provide valuable services along 25% of the world's coastlines. Globally, many kelp forests have disappeared and been replaced by turf algae over

Exploring the effects of fishing pressure and upwelling intensity over subtidal kelp forest communities in Central Chile

Understanding the processes that drive kelp forest communities is critical for management and conservation of these productive ecosystems. As a way to advance in this direction, we explored the

Deep-water kelp refugia as potential hotspots of tropical marine diversity and productivity

A synthetic oceanographic and ecophysiological model is presented that accurately identifies all known kelp populations and predicts the existence of >23,500 km2 unexplored submerged (30- to 200-m depth) tropical kelp habitats and extensive new deep-water Eisenia galapagensis populations in the Galápagos are discovered.

Production and fate of kelp detritus

The flow of detritus between habitats is an important form of connectivity that affects regional productivity and the spatial organization of marine ecosystems and can provide a significant resource subsidy and enhance secondary production in these communities ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers from the source of production.

Sea urchin barrens as alternative stable states of collapsed kelp ecosystems

Evidence is found in several regions that transitions between barrens and kelp beds are characterized by discontinuous phase shifts, with different thresholds for forward (to barrens) and reverse (to kelp bed) shifts, in accordance with alternative stable-state dynamics.