Statistics of natural reverberation enable perceptual separation of sound and space

@article{Traer2016StatisticsON,
  title={Statistics of natural reverberation enable perceptual separation of sound and space},
  author={James Traer and Josh H. McDermott},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2016},
  volume={113},
  pages={E7856 - E7865}
}
Significance Sounds produced in the world reflect off surrounding surfaces on their way to our ears. Known as reverberation, these reflections distort sound but provide information about the world around us. We asked whether reverberation exhibits statistical regularities that listeners use to separate its effects from those of a sound’s source. We conducted a large-scale statistical analysis of real-world acoustics, revealing strong regularities of reverberation in natural scenes. We found… Expand

Figures and Topics from this paper

Context-Dependent Effect of Reverberation on Material Perception from Impact Sound
TLDR
Although the detailed results varied greatly among the participants, these results suggest that a mechanism exists in the auditory system that compensates for reverberation based on adaptation to the spectral features of reverberant sound. Expand
Neural Coding of Noisy and Reverberant Speech in Human Auditory Cortex
TLDR
This work investigates the neural representation of speech in noisy, reverberant listening conditions as measured by phase-locked MEG responses to the slow temporal modulations of speech and shows that theta-band neural responses are a likely candidate for the distortion free representations of speech, whereas delta band responses are more likely to carry non-speech specific information regarding the listening environment. Expand
Hearing Scenes: A Neuromagnetic Signature of Auditory Source and Reverberant Space Separation
TLDR
Separable neural signatures of auditory space and source perception during magnetoencephalography recording are reported as subjects listened to brief sounds convolved with monaural room impulse responses and reveal the temporal dynamics of how auditory scene analysis extracts percepts from complex naturalistic auditory signals. Expand
Deep neural network models of sound localization reveal how perception is adapted to real-world environments
TLDR
A deep neural network is equipped with human ears and trained to localize sounds in a virtual environment, showing how biological hearing is adapted to the challenges of real-world environments and illustrating how artificial neural networks can extend traditional ideal observer models to real- world domains. Expand
Causal inference in environmental sound recognition
TLDR
The results suggest that listeners implicitly use the intensity at the ear along with distance cues to infer a source’s power and constrain its identity in the interest of invariant recognition. Expand
The percept of reverberation is not affected by visual room impression in virtual environments.
TLDR
In a highly immersive audio-visual virtual reality environment, subjects were asked to quantify reverberation in conditions where simultaneously presented auditory and visual stimuli either match in room identity, sound source azimuth, and sound source distance, or diverge in one of these aspects. Expand
Brainstem mechanisms contributing to accurate source localisation are suited to the reverberant structure of natural acoustic scenes
TLDR
It is demonstrated that accurate localisation in reverberant environments relies on pre- and post-synaptic specializations that emphasise spatial information in early-arriving sound energy, particularly at sound frequencies where reverberant energy is relatively intense. Expand
Brainstem biophysics contribute to sound-source localisation in reverberant scenes
ABSTRACT Listeners perceive sound-energy as originating from the direction of its source, even as the direct sound is followed only milliseconds later by reflected sound from multiple differentExpand
An exploratory investigation of speech recognition thresholds in noise with auralisations of two reverberant rooms
TLDR
Auralisations may offer information on speech recognition performance that is not obtained with a test without reverberation, however, more complex stimuli and/or higher signal-to-noise ratios should be used in the future. Expand
Listening in complex acoustic scenes
TLDR
The neural processing underlying auditory scene analysis is shaped by experience over multiple timescales and depends on precise temporal coding and modulation of cortical response properties when attending to a particular speaker in a multi-talker environment. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES
Effects of Reverberation on the Directional Sensitivity of Auditory Neurons across the Tonotopic Axis: Influences of Interaural Time and Level Differences
TLDR
It is found that reverberation degrades the directional sensitivity of single neurons, although the amount of degradation depends on the characteristic frequency (CF) and the type of binaural cues available, suggesting that, at high frequencies, ILDs provide better directional information than envelope ITDs. Expand
Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging “periodicity-tagged” segregation of competing speech in rooms
TLDR
This work examines the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions and offers neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging listening conditions. Expand
Reverberation Challenges the Temporal Representation of the Pitch of Complex Sounds
TLDR
Recording from single neurons in the cochlear nucleus of anesthetized guinea pigs shows that the neural representation of pitch based on timing information is severely degraded in the presence of reverberation, explaining the origin of perceptual difficulties experienced by both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners in reverberant spaces. Expand
The Precedence Effect in Sound Localization
TLDR
Recent progress and changes in the understanding of the precedence effect are highlighted, characterizing the perceptual dominance of spatial information carried by the first-arriving signal. Expand
Recovering sound sources from embedded repetition
TLDR
It is shown that the auditory system can bootstrap its way around the problem of segregating individual sound sources by identifying sound sources as repeating patterns embedded in the acoustic input, and can permit their recovery in the absence of other segregation cues or prior knowledge of sounds. Expand
Localizing nearby sound sources in a classroom: binaural room impulse responses.
TLDR
Results suggest that bias and variability in sound localization behavior may vary systematically with listener location in a room as well as source location relative to the listener, even for nearby sources where there is relatively little reverberant energy. Expand
Neural Coding of Sound Envelope in Reverberant Environments
TLDR
The results suggest that the auditory system may possess dual mechanisms that make the coding of amplitude envelope relatively robust in reverberation: one general mechanism operating for all stimuli with small modulation depths, and another mechanism dependent on very specific properties of reverberant stimuli, possibly the periodic fluctuations in interaural correlation at the modulation frequency. Expand
Prior listening in rooms improves speech intelligibility.
TLDR
This work has shown that prior binaural exposure to reverberant rooms can improve speech intelligibility, perhaps due to a process of perceptual adaptation to the acoustics of the listening room. Expand
Direct-to-reverberant energy ratio sensitivity.
  • P. Zahorik
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 2002
Although the ratio of direct-to-reverberant sound energy is known to be an important acoustic cue to sound source distance, human sensitivity to changes in this cue is largely unknown. Here,Expand
Natural Sounding Artificial Reverberation
'Artificial reverberation is added to sound signals requiring additional reverberation for optimum listening enjoyment. This paper describes methods for generating, by purely electronic means, anExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...