Statistical Theory of the Energy Levels of Complex Systems. I

  title={Statistical Theory of the Energy Levels of Complex Systems. I},
  author={Freeman J. Dyson},
  journal={Journal of Mathematical Physics},
  • F. Dyson
  • Published 1962
  • Physics
  • Journal of Mathematical Physics
New kinds of statistical ensemble are defined, representing a mathematical idealization of the notion of ``all physical systems with equal probability.'' Three such ensembles are studied in detail, based mathematically upon the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic groups. The orthogonal ensemble is relevant in most practical circumstances, the unitary ensemble applies only when time‐reversal invariance is violated, and the symplectic ensemble applies only to odd‐spin systems without rotational… 
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    Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical
  • 2021
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