Stationary and drifting spiral waves of excitation in isolated cardiac muscle

  title={Stationary and drifting spiral waves of excitation in isolated cardiac muscle},
  author={Jorge M. Davidenko and Arcady V. Pertsov and Remy Salomonsz and William T. Baxter and Jos{\'e} Jalife},
EXCITABLE media can support spiral waves rotating around an organizing centre1–7. Spiral waves have been discovered in different types of autocatalytic chemical reactions8,9 and in biological systems10–12. The so-called 're-entrant excitation' of myocardial cells13, causing the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, could be the result of spiral waves1,2. Here we use a potentiometric dye14,15 in combination with CCD (charge-coupled device… 

Spiral waves of excitation underlie reentrant activity in isolated cardiac muscle.

The overall results show that spiral wave activity is a property of cardiac muscle and suggest that such activity may be the common mechanism of a number of monomorphic and polymorphic tachycardias.

Properties of spiral waves in a piece of isotropic myocardium.

The analysis showed that a spiral wave was created when the second excitation front became critically curved, in the wake of the preceding wave, so that decremental propagation occurred.

Multiarm spirals in a two-dimensional cardiac substrate.

It is shown that persistent multiarm spirals of electrical activity can be induced in monolayer cultures of neonatal rat heart cells by a short, rapid train of electrical point stimuli applied during single-arm-spiral activity.

Termination of spiral waves during cardiac fibrillation via shock-induced phase resetting.

  • R. GrayN. Chattipakorn
  • Materials Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
The results indicate that shock-induced spiral wave termination in the heart is caused by altering the phase around the PSs, such that, depending on the preshock phase, sites are either excited by membrane depolarization or exhibit slowed membrane repolarization (phase delay).

Spiral wave drift under optical feedback in cardiac tissue

Spiral waves occur in various types of excitable media and their dynamics determine the spatial excitation patterns. An important type of spiral wave dynamics is drift, as it can control the position

Electrical alternans and spiral wave breakup in cardiac tissue.

A general formulation of these equations is described in which arbitrary experimentally determined restitution and dispersion curves can in principle be fitted and lead to a spatially disorganized wave activity which is always transient, except for tissues larger than some minimum size and within a very narrow range of Re which increases with dispersion.

Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues

The aim of this paper is to quantify general phenomena in an in vitro cardiac system and provide explanations for them with a simple physiological model having some realistic spatial inhomogeneities incorporated.

Cardiac beat-to-beat alternations driven by unusual spiral waves

In well controlled in vitro tissue cultures, isotropic populations of rat ventricular myocytes sustaining a temporal rhythm of alternans can support period-2 oscillatory reentries and vice versa, and it is found that a slowly rotating line defect results in a quasi-periodic like oscillation in the bulk medium.

Stochastic Termination of Spiral Wave Dynamics in Cardiac Tissue

It is shown that, following ablation of spatial heterogeneity to render that region of the medium unexcitable, termination of spiral wave dynamics is stochastic and Poisson-distributed and that the dynamics can be accurately described by a master equation using birth and death rates.



Sustained vortex-like waves in normal isolated ventricular muscle.

The results suggest that two-dimensional vortex-like reentry in cardiac muscle is analogous to spiral waves in other biological and chemical excitable media.

Spiral waves of spreading depression in the isolated chicken retina.

It is argued that spiral SD waves probably exist in the cerebral cortex of rats and account for generation of repetitive SD waves sometimes elicited by overlapping stimulation of two cortical regions.

Circus Movement in Rabbit Atrial Muscle as a Mechanism of Tachycardia

The results show that even in a small area of atrial muscle containing no anatomical obstacle the impulse can be entrapped in a circus movement and was the underlying mechanism of the arrhythmia.

Stimulus-induced critical point. Mechanism for electrical initiation of reentry in normal canine myocardium.

The hypothesis was tested that the field of a premature (S2) stimulus, interacting with relatively refractory tissue, can create unidirectional block and reentry in the absence of nonuniform dispersion of recovery when S2 field strengths and tissue refractoriness are uniformally dispersed at an angle to each other.

Spiral calcium wave propagation and annihilation in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

Regenerative spiral waves of release of free Ca2+ were observed by confocal microscopy in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and the absolute refractory period for Ca2- stores was determined.

Mapping of ventricular tachycardia induced by programmed stimulation in canine preparations of myocardial infarction.

While surviving subepicardial and intramural layers appeared to be involved in the mechanism of ventricular tachycardia, a late second breakthrough on the right ventricle, in conjunction with fixed-coupled H deflections on the His bundle electrograms, suggested the involvement of the conducting system in propagation of the impulse.

Directional differences in excitability and margin of safety for propagation in sheep ventricular epicardial muscle.

Under normal conditions, threshold requirements for active propagation are lower for transverse than for longitudinal propagation, and when active membrane properties are impaired, the safety factor for propagation is larger in the direction along the longitudinal axis of the cells.

Effects of diacetyl monoxime on cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

There was a lack of major effects of DAM on sarcolemmal electrical properties and the negative inotropic effect of DAM cannot be ascribed to an inhibitory effect on the slow inward current, as suggested previously.