State-of-the-art of non-hormonal methods of contraception: IV. Natural family planning

  title={State-of-the-art of non-hormonal methods of contraception: IV. Natural family planning},
  author={G{\"u}nter Freundl and Irving Sivin and Istv{\'a}n Bat{\'a}r},
  journal={The European Journal of Contraception \& Reproductive Health Care},
  pages={113 - 123}
Despite the popularity of ‘modern’ contraceptives, natural family planning (NFP), including fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods and withdrawal, are practised in most countries. Worldwide FAB methods and withdrawal are used, respectively, by about 3.6% and 2.9% of all couples of reproductive age. This article describes the underpinnings of the different NFP methods, their rationales, histories, rules for use, efficacy and in broad categories their prevalence. Pregnancy rates of FAB methods… 
Women's views of a fertility awareness and hormonal support approach to subfertility
The use of a fertility awareness-based method appears to be acceptable amongst subfertile women intending to conceive naturally, and most women using such a method for conception would be open to the use of hormonal support during the fertility cycle or early pregnancy.
[Family planning methods based on fertility awareness].
The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methodslike the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method.
Natural and traditional family planning methods
Health care providers should respect the choice of couples' natural family planning methodology, be aware of the options ofnatural family planning methods, and provide appropriate resources/advice for the correct use of the method chosen by a woman or couple.
Current Medical Research *
A study to determine the knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness among a cohort of women from Saint Louis found that the perceived contraceptive effectiveness of sterilization, the intrauterine device, and contraceptive implants were incorrect among 76, 65, and 55 percent of respondents.
Premature ejaculation in couples using contraceptive withdrawal and associations with characteristics of its use: A cross‐sectional study
According to the results, couples who use WD experience PE‐related problems, and the problems they experience vary depending on the period of WD use, marriage duration and age.
Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning
It is figured out that only for one hormone- and for one temperature-computerreasonable prospective studies exist and urgently need moreclinical studies on menstrual cycle monitors for reliable information of the users.
Misrepresentation of contraceptive effectiveness rates for fertility awareness methods of family planning
  • J. Turner
  • Medicine, Business
    The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • 2020
This review critically examines current international representation of contraceptive effectiveness for the various FAMs in clinical use and details important issues when appraising and interpreting studies on FAMs used for avoiding pregnancy.
Birth Control and Contraception: The Dilemma of Informed Consent
It is concluded that U.S. women are not in a position to exercise their right of self decision due to a lack of information and disregard for the principle of nil nocere on the part of authors and publishers.
Implementation and Scale-Up of the Standard Days Method of Family Planning: A Landscape Analysis
The status of the SDM in the 16 countries that had attempted to scale up the method within national family planning protocols, training, and service delivery was examined, finding a high level of acceptability of the method; efficacy rates comparable to the initial clinical trials; and diversity in demographic characteristics of users.


The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple's sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study.
The symptothermal method (STM), an FAB method that uses two indicators of fertility, temperature and cervical secretions observation, is a highly effective family planning method, provided the appropriate guidelines are consistently adhered to.
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The comparative efficacy of fertility awareness-based methods of contraception remains unknown and should be properly evaluated, preferably in randomized controlled trials, before adoption and dissemination.
European multicenter study of natural family planning (1989–1995): efficacy and drop-out
The symptothermal double-check methods have proved to be effective family planning methods in Europe and the low drop-out-rate for difficulties or dissatisfaction with NFP shows the good acceptability.
Fertility awareness methods of family planning: The physiological background, methodology and effectiveness of fertility awareness methods
  • C. Pyper, J. Knight
  • Medicine
    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
  • 2001
Overall effective studies and probability of conception studies have confirmed that the late infertile time is the safest time to have unprotected intercourse and avoid a pregnancy.
Contraceptive failure rates in France: results from a population-based survey.
Lower failure rates among French women compared with those reported for US women suggest differences in contraceptive practices which need to be further explored.
Reasons and correlates of contraceptive discontinuation in Kuwait
The desire to become pregnant was the leading reason for discontinuation of most modern methods, while method failure was an equally important reason for traditional methods.