State formation and economic development in post-war Somaliland: the impact of the private sector in an unrecognised state

  title={State formation and economic development in post-war Somaliland: the impact of the private sector in an unrecognised state},
  author={Ahmed M. Musa and Cindy Horst},
  journal={Conflict, Security \& Development},
  pages={35 - 53}
ABSTRACT Unrecognised internationally, Somaliland operates as a hybrid political order where a range of state and non-state entities provide security, representation and social services. Local business elites have impacted state formation after war by lobbying against a range of regulations, providing the government with loans and contributions rather than paying sufficient taxes, and by hindering the development of sound financial institutions. The success of such activities has led to de… 

The Political Economy of Radicalization: Informal Networks and the Rise of an Urban Militant Islamism in Cairo

  • History, Economics
    Black Markets and Militants
  • 2021
In Egypt, by the 1990s, both state policy and broader external forces played a role in the rise of Islamist militancy in informal Cairo. To be sure the persistence in the popularity of the Jama’a

Functional Markets in Yemen’s War Economy

Our article explores the economic activities of households operating in Yemen’s protracted conflict. We examine the growth and maturation of what we call the ‘Functional Economy’ in Yemen, in which

Black Markets and Militants

Understanding the political and socio-economic factors which give rise to youth recruitment into militant organizations is at the heart of grasping some of the most important issues that affect the

Statelessness and transnational networks: The case of Hawala in Somali society

This paper analyses conditions which make Hawala work as money and information transfer system. This system of money transfer is so unusual due to some reasons. One of the reasons is lack of banking

Entrepreneurship and Peacebuilding: A Review and Synthesis

Entrepreneurship is the dominant form of enterprise in conflict-affected settings, yet little is known about the role of entrepreneurship in peacebuilding. In response, this article undertakes a

Entrepreneurship, Conflict, and Peace: The Role of Inclusion and Value Creation

Conflict zone entrepreneurs—local entrepreneurs running small businesses in conflict settings—have paradoxical impacts on stability: holding the ability both to foster peace but also to enhance

Modern trade relations between the Republic of South Ossetia and Russian regions: Features, trends, barriers, risks

Touches upon the foreign economic interactions of the partially recognized states - the Republic of South Ossetia. The development of states that have arisen, as a rule, as a result of armed

Revenues on the hoof: livestock trade, taxation and state-making in the Somali territories

ABSTRACT This article considers the relationship between livestock taxation and local state formation dynamics in the northern Somali territories. While the economic importance of livestock in

Explaining Informal Taxation and Revenue Generation: Evidence from south-central Somalia

Most people in low-income countries contribute substantially to the financing of local public goods through informal revenue generation (IRG). However, very little is known about how IRG works in



Somaliland’s private sector at a crossroads : political economy and policy choices for prosperity and job creation

The Somaliland economy is driven by the private sector. Unlike most other economies in the world, the government footprint is limited, amounting to under 10 percent of the gross domestic product

Nation building and the role of the private sector as a political peace-builder

The international development community (national governments, international development bodies such as the World Bank and UN, and civil society organisations such as Oxfam) has acknowledged for some

The Role of Business in Maintaining Peace in Somaliland

Brief Points Somaliland has been peaceful for the last two decades, though this peace remains fragile. Analysts have accredited Somaliland’s relative stability to its bottomup peacebuilding approach.

The Strength of Weak States? Non‐State Security Forces and Hybrid Governance in Africa

In this article, I explore the recent revalorization of non-state forms of order and authority in the context of hybrid approaches to governance and state building in Africa. I argue for a more

Somaliland's best kept secret: shrewd politics and war projects as means of state-making

Abstract The de facto state of Somaliland has featured prominently as constituting an allegedly exceptional case of state-making, especially because peaceful and democratic elements of its trajectory

Taxation, Political Accountability and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Somaliland

For years, studies of state formation in early and medieval Europe have argued that the modern, representative state emerged as the result of negotiations between autocratic governments in need of

The transnational political engagements of refugees: Remittance sending practices amongst Somalis in Norway

This article aims to provide insight into the transnational political engagements of Somalis in Norway, and focuses mainly on their financial contributions. Such an aim is inspired by the increased

State Building without Sovereignty: The Somaliland Republic

At the heart of state sovereignty is a tension. On one hand it promises collective freedom and autonomy. On the other hand, sovereignty is laden with expectations. One of the most important of these,

Peace Building: The Private Sector’s Role

  • A. Gerson
  • Political Science
    American Journal of International Law
  • 2001
Intrastate war is now the predominant form of armed conflict. The civil wars of the last decade have scarred the world’s poorest countries, leaving a legacy of more than five million dead, many more

Somaliland: choosing politics over violence

Since breaking away from Somalia in 1991, the people of Somaliland have charted a different path from Somalia away from violent conflict towards constitutional politics. Unrecognised by the