Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation
This study was conducted to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of dexamethasone during leukocyte recruitment and expression of the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) (CXCL2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) (CXCL1) in staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced acute inflammation. To do this, SEB was injected into murine air pouches with or without dexamethasone pretreatment for 2 h. SEB induced infiltration of leukocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with the maximal response observed after 4 h of treatment with 10 microg of SEB. The recruited leukocytes comprised more than 77% neutrophils. Moreover, SEB challenge (10 microg) provoked time-dependent secretion of CXC chemokines, which peaked after 1 h. Local administration of antibodies against MIP-2 and KC significantly reduced SEB-triggered neutrophil accumulation by 38 and 59%, respectively. Dexamethasone (10 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased neutrophil recruitment by 82% and reduced secretion of MIP-2 and KC by 89 and 85%, respectively, in response to SEB challenge. Our data demonstrate that dexamethasone potently inhibits neutrophil recruitment in SEB-induced inflammation. Moreover, we provide evidence that MIP-2 and KC are key mediators in the neutrophil response to SEB. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that dexamethasone attenuates SEB-induced expression of MIP-2 and KC. Thus, this study elucidates important signaling pathways of SEB-induced neutrophil recruitment and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of dexamethasone.