Soft tissue sarcomas are very rare tumors. Available data are based on only a few prospective randomized trials. Most studies are retrospective, reviewing the results of single institutions. Furthermore, universally accepted treatment protocols for adult patients are lacking. Several prognostic factors have been identified, including grading, tumor size and development of metastatic disease; however, the relevance of other important aspects in the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcomas remains unknown or subject to controversy. The main issues concern: which surgical margin width is safe from an oncological perspective? Does local recurrence influence survival? Can systemic chemotherapy improve prognosis? Is radiotherapy necessary in every case? Should it be applied pre-, post- or intraoperatively? What is the value of assessing the response after neoadjuvant therapy? These topics are examined in this review.