Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

  title={Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions},
  author={Geoffrey R. Williams and C{\'e}dric Alaux and Cec{\'i}lia Patr{\'i}cia Alves Costa and T{\'a}mas Cs{\'a}ki and Vincent Doublet and Dorothea Eisenhardt and Ingemar Fries and Rolf Kuhn and Dino P. McMahon and Piotr Mędrzycki and Tom{\'a}s Murray and Myrsini E. Natsopoulou and Peter Neumann and Randy Oliver and Robert J. Paxton and Stephen F. Pernal and Dave Shutler and Gina Tanner and Jozef J. M. van der Steen and Robert Brodschneider},
  journal={Journal of Apicultural Research},
  pages={1 - 36}
Summary Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may cage whole frames to obtain newly emerged workers of known age cohorts. Regardless of purpose, researchers must manage a number of variables, ranging from selection of study subjects (e.g… 

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