Standard methods for Nosema research

  title={Standard methods for Nosema research},
  author={Ingemar Fries and Marie P. Chauzat and Yanping Chen and Vincent Doublet and Elke Genersch and Sebastian Gisder and Mariano Higes and Dino P. McMahon and Raquel Mart{\'i}n-Hern{\'a}ndez and Myrsini E. Natsopoulou and Robert J. Paxton and Gina Tanner and Thomas Webster and Geoffrey R. Williams},
  journal={Journal of Apicultural Research},
  pages={1 - 28}
Summary Methods are described for working with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the field and in the laboratory. For fieldwork, different sampling methods are described to determine colony level infections at a given point in time, but also for following the temporal infection dynamics. Suggestions are made for how to standardise field trials for evaluating treatments and disease impact. The laboratory methods described include different means for determining colony level and individual bee… 

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