Stamen Development in Salvia L.: Homology Reinvestigated

  title={Stamen Development in Salvia L.: Homology Reinvestigated},
  author={Regine Classen-Bockhoff and Michael Crone and Elena V. Baikova},
  journal={International Journal of Plant Sciences},
  pages={475 - 498}
The genus Salvia is characterized by lever‐like modified stamens. The hypothesis of homology is reinvestigated by referring to three different levels of positional homology: (1) the position of the stamen within the flower, (2) the position of the lever within the stamen, and (3) the position of the reduced theca within the lower lever arm. Stamen development in twenty‐one Salvia species from different sections and with highly diverse staminal structures is studied. Starting with an asymmetric… 
Stamen construction, development and evolution in Salvia s.l.
The study shows that stamen diversity results from few developmental changes, and the latter appear in different combinations and support subclades rather than clades.
Staminal evolution in the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): molecular phylogenetic evidence for multiple origins of the staminal lever.
It is suggested that Salvia is clearly polyphyletic, with five other genera intercalated within it, and staminal evolution has proceeded in different ways in each of the three lineages of Salvia but has resulted in remarkably similarStaminal morphologies.
Pollination Mechanisms of genus Salvia( Lamiaceae) in East Asia( China)
It is discovered that these three pollination types contribute to the geographical distribution in China of the three Salvia subgenera, and unique pollination mechanisms of each plant are based on two aspects of the staminal structures and their automatic movements.
Phylogeny and staminal evolution of Salvia (Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae) in East Asia
This study supports the adoption of a broadly defined Salvia and treats EA Salvia as a sub genus, Glutinaria, recognizing eight sections within this subgenus.
Richness and Distribution of Salvia Subg. Calosphace (Lamiaceae)
An updated checklist of the species richness and distribution of Salvia subg.
New insights into the functional morphology of the lever mechanism of Salvia pratensis (Lamiaceae).
The analysis of the interaction of flower visitor and the lever mechanism revealed that the position of bees on different flowers is spatially very similar, which allows the principles of lightweight architecture in flower morphology to be recognized.
Functional implications of the staminal lever mechanism in Salvia cyclostegia (Lamiaceae).
Though the intact flowers demand a long handling time for pollinators, the reversible staminal lever is of advantage by promoting dispersal of pollen and thus the male function.
Phenotypic selection on the staminal lever mechanism in Salvia digitaloides (Labiaceae)
It is most likely that floral traits involved in the staminal lever mechanism evolved in a functionally integrated manner for the enhancement of pollination efficiency in the natural population of S. digitaloides.


Salvia (Lamiaceae) is not monophyletic: implications for the systematics, radiation, and ecological specializations of Salvia and tribe Mentheae.
In a preliminary investigation of infrageneric relationships within Salvia, the monophyly of the genus and its relationship to other members of the tribe Mentheae were investigated using the chloroplast DNA regions rbcL and trnL-F.
The Staminal Lever Mechanism in Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) - a Review
It is hypothesized that structure and functioning of the staminal levers play a major role as key structures in speciation in Salvia.
Phylogeny inLabiatae s. l., inferred from cpDNA sequences
Sequences ofrbcL andndhF were analysed independently and in combination to resolve phylogenetic relationships inLabiatae s. l. Monophyly ofLabiatae s. l was supported by all three analyses.Congea
Morphology of flowers and inflorescences
The flower as a formal and functional entity - aspects of the biology of pollination and dispersal mechanisms of self- pollination mechanisms which facilitate cross-pollination the fruit (the flower at the stage when the seeds are ripe) infructescences.
Roscoea purpurea Sm., eine Zingiberacee mit Hebelmechanismus in den Blüten
Theoretisch interessant sind dabei jene F/~lle, wo die AngehSrigen ein und derselben Gattung, ,tie im taktischen Aufbau ihrer Bliiten vollkommen fibereinstimmen, dennoeh in deren Gesamtgestalt auffallende Unterschiede aufweisen.
Zur Biologie und Anatomie der Salvienblüte
  • Plant Biol
  • 1891
Roscoea purpurea Sm . , eine Zingiberacee mit Hebel - mechanismus in den Blüten . Mit Bemerkungen über die Entfaltung der fertilen Staubblätter von Salvia
  • Planta
  • 1929