Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use

  title={Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use},
  author={Denise B. Kandel},
  pages={912 - 914}
  • D. Kandel
  • Published 28 November 1975
  • Law
  • Science
Two longitudinal surveys based on random samples of high school students in New York State indicate four stages in the sequence of involvement with drugs: beer or wine, or both; cigarettes or hard liquor; marihuana; and other illicit drugs. The legal drugs are necessary intermediates between nonuse and marihuana. Whereas 27 percent of high school students who smoke and drink progress to marihuana within a 5- to 6-month follow-up period, only 2 percent of those who have not used any legal… 
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The developmental pattern of drug involvement identified in the early 1970s still characterizes adolescent pathways of drug involved in the late 1980s and the results confirm the more important role of alcohol among males and cigarettes among females in the progression into various drug classes.
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Problem drinking and the dimension of involvement with drugs: a Guttman scalogram analysis of adolescent drug use.
Analyses of data from two nationwide surveys of high school students suggest that problem drinking may be seen as yet another step along an underlying dimension of involvement with both licit and illicit drugs, which possesses excellent Guttman-scale properties.
Acceptance of Drug Use Mediates Future Hard Drug Use Among At-Risk Adolescent Marijuana, Tobacco, and Alcohol Users
A model was tested to determine if AHS students’ latitude of acceptance toward substance use was a mediator between the relationship of past use of gateway drugs and future use of hard drugs, and Latitude of acceptance was found to be a statistically significant mediator of future hard drug use.
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Analysis of pattern of drug involvement among 4,145 West Coast adolescents over the 4-year span from Grades 7-10 found no evidence that cocaine has become a gateway drug, but provided some support for treating cocaine initiation as a separate stage that precedes the onset of hard drugs other than pills.
Protective correlates of stages in adolescent substance use: a Swiss National Study.
Alcohol: The gateway to other drug use among secondary-school students
The “stepping-stone” theory of progression into drug use is examined, based on the alcohol and other drug use of over 27,000 seventh-through eighth-grade students in New York State. The data show
Transition from alcohol to other drugs among adolescents in Taiwan: the first drinking context matters.
Youthful drinking pattern and transition from alcohol to betel nut and illegal drugs may vary modestly by the first drinking context, and this context may be recognized as a proxy variable to identify youth at a higher risk for alcohol and other drug problems and to devise context-based educational or prevention programs.
Depressive mood and adolescent illicit drug use: a longitudinal analysis.
While the beginning use of illicit drugs other than marihuana was positively associated with increased depressive mood, continued multiple drug use was related to reduced depressive mood.


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Two prospective longitudinal surveys based on New York State high school students indicate well-defined steps underlying adolescent progression and regression in drug use and the identification of stages in drug behavior has implications regarding the optimum strategy for studying factors that predict, differentiate, or result from drug use.
Adolescent Marihuana Use: Role of Parents and Peers
Peer and parental influences are synergistic; the highest rates of marihuana usage are observed among adolescents whose parents and friends are drug users, and the data indicate thatdrug use by peers exerts a greater influence than drug use by parents.
Phases of alcohol addiction.
  • E. Jellinek
  • Medicine
    Quarterly journal of studies on alcohol
  • 1952
The elaboration of the phases concept resulting from analysis of additional materials has been presented by Jellinek in lectures at the Yale Summer School of Alcohol Studies and at the European Seminar on Alcoholism.
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Patterns of multiple drug use in high school.