Testicular tumors are uncommon, but they continue to represent an important group of malignancies in young men. It is the most common solid malignancy in males between the ages of 20 and 35, and primary germ cell tumors are the most common histological type. In the United States in 2008, approximately 4800 cases of seminoma, approximately 4100 of which were stage I disease were projected after the completion of staging investigations. Remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of testicular seminoma over the past 25 years. Management options of stage I seminoma include radiotherapy, surveillance, or adjuvant chemotherapy. Standard management until recent years has been adjuvant retroperitoneal radiotherapy. Although providing excellent long term results, this approach has been associated with increased risk of gonadal toxicity, development of secondary malignancies and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The use of surveillance in management of patients with stage I seminoma is therefore becoming more frequent as it minimizes the burden of treatment and maintains the cure rate at virtually 100%. Adjuvant chemotherapy using Carboplatin has been investigated as an alternative management approach. However, the long term outcomes of patients managed with Carboplatin are not yet clear and this strategy should only be used in a study setting. It has been suggested that more patients with stage I seminoma will die of their treatment than of their cancer; therefore, the thrust of modern management should be to maintain 100% cure while minimizing the burden of treatment.