Stage I and II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Treated by a Structured Nonoperative Management Protocol: An Orthosis and Exercise Program

  title={Stage I and II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Treated by a Structured Nonoperative Management Protocol: An Orthosis and Exercise Program},
  author={Richard G. Alvarez and Andrew Marini and C Schmitt and Charles L Saltzman},
  journal={Foot \& Ankle International},
  pages={2 - 8}
Background: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a relatively common problem of middle-aged adults that usually is treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to identify strength deficits with early stage PTTD and to assess the efficacy of a focused nonoperative treatment protocol. Methods: Forty-seven consecutive patients with stage I or II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were treated by a structured nonoperative protocol. Criteria for inclusion were the presence of a… 

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