Stability of recall of military hazards over time

@article{Wessely2003StabilityOR,
  title={Stability of recall of military hazards over time},
  author={Simon Wessely and Catherine Unwin and Matthew Hotopf and Lisa Hull and Khalida Ismail and V. Nicolaou and Anthony S. David},
  journal={British Journal of Psychiatry},
  year={2003},
  volume={183},
  pages={314 - 322}
}
Background Wartime traumatic events are related to subsequent psychological and physical health, but quantifying the association is problematic. Memory changes over time and is influenced by psychological status. Aims To use a large, two-stage cohort study of members of the UK armed forces to study changes in recall of both traumatic and ‘toxic’ hazards. Method A questionnaire-based follow-up study assessed 2370 UK military personnel, repeating earlier questions about exposure to military… 
Consistency of Reporting for Stressful Life Events Among Nondeployed Soldiers.
TLDR
Investigation of consistency in reporting stressful life events in nondeployed U.S. Army soldiers and its association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology found inconsistencies extends beyond combat events to other stressfullife events in military personnel and is associated with PTSD.
Inconsistent Reporting of Adverse Life Events Is Predicted by Current Internalizing Distress Among Military Service Members.
INTRODUCTION Accurate measurement of adverse life events is critical for understanding the effects of stressors on health outcomes. However, much of this research uses cross-sectional designs and
Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder among UK Armed Forces personnel
TLDR
Personal appraisal of threat to life during the trauma emerged as the most important predictor of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and these results raise the possibility that there are important modifiable occupational factors such as unit morale, leadership, preparing combatants for their role in theatre which may influence an individual's risk ofPost-traumatic Stress disorder.
Memory consistency for traumatic events in Dutch soldiers deployed to Iraq
TLDR
The aim of this prospective study was to index the consistency with which Dutch Army soldiers reported traumatic stressors and nontraumatic stressors on their deployment to Iraq, and to examine to what extent PTSD symptoms and pre-existing reporting biases, such as that arising from neuroticism, affect memory inconsistency.
Longitudinal changes in recalled perceived life threat after a natural disaster
TLDR
Recalled amplification of perceived life threat from a single stressful event occurs in the general population, it may hinder PTSD symptom improvement and it questions the diagnostic validity of PTSD.
Does prior psychological health influence recall of military experiences? a prospective study.
TLDR
With the exception of intrusive thoughts, there is insufficient evidence to suggest predeployment psychological status would be useful in correcting for recall bias in subsequent cross-sectional studies.
Explanations for the increase in mental health problems in UK reserve forces who have served in Iraq
TLDR
The increased ill-health of reservists appears to be due to experiences on deployment and difficulties with homecoming, and was paradoxically most powerfully affected by differences in problems at home rather than events in Iraq.
Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments
TLDR
Higher levels of subjective traumatic exposures were associated with increased rates of PTSD in East Timor veterans and more physical and psychological health symptoms in both deployed groups.
War-related psychological stressors and risk of psychological disorders in Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War
TLDR
Service in the 1991 Gulf War is associated with increased risk of psychological disorders and these are related to stressful experiences and can be explained partly as a ‘war-deployment effect’.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity
Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore
Occupational risk factors for ill health in Gulf veterans of the United Kingdom
TLDR
Rank was the main occupational factor associated with both psychological and physical ill health in Gulf veterans and may parallel the associations between socioeconomic status and morbidity in civilian populations.
Consistency of memory for combat-related traumatic events in veterans of Operation Desert Storm.
TLDR
Findings do not support the position that traumatic memories are fixed or indelible and suggest that as PTSD symptoms increase, so does amplification of memory for traumatic events.
Cognitive functioning and disturbances of mood in UK veterans of the Persian Gulf War: a comparative study
TLDR
Disturbances of mood are more prominent than quantifiable cognitive deficits in Gulf War veterans and probably lead to subjective underestimation of ability, which can themselves be explained by depressed mood.
Health of UK servicemen who served in Persian Gulf War
Strategies to assess validity of self-reported exposures during the Persian Gulf War. Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center.
TLDR
Test-retest reliability estimates indicate inconsistency in frequency and rate of self-reported exposures during the PGW, and significant overreporting of exposures that can be verified based on the time period served in the Persian Gulf.
Posttraumatic stress disorder and retrospectively reported stressor exposure: a longitudinal prediction model.
TLDR
A regression-based cross-lagged analysis revealed a marginal association between Time 1 PTSD symptom severity and Time 2 reported stressor exposure for men and suggested that later reports of stressor Exposure are primarily accounted for by earlier reports and less so by earlier PTSD symptomatology.
Risk Factors for Multisymptom Illness in US Army Veterans of the Gulf War
TLDR
Female gender, lower levels of education, psychological symptoms, self-reported use of a medical clinic in the Gulf, ingestion of anti-nerve gas pills, anthrax vaccination, tent heaters, exposure to oil fire smoke, and chemical odors were significantly related to multisymptom illness in logistic regression analyses.
Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults.
TLDR
The effect size of all the risk factors was modest, but factors operating during or after the trauma, such as trauma severity, lack of social support, and additional life stress, had somewhat stronger effects than pretrauma factors.
Consistency of Self-Reports of Traumatic Events in a Population of Dutch Peacekeepers: Reason for Optimism?
TLDR
Findings raising doubts concerning the reliability and validity of self-report measures of exposure were not replicated in this sample of Dutch peacekeepers and were not correlated with symptoms of PTSD.
...
...