Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro

@article{Astwood1996StabilityOF,
  title={Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro},
  author={James D. Astwood and John N. Leach and Roy L. Fuchs},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
  year={1996},
  volume={14},
  pages={1269-1273}
}
An integral part of the safety assessment of genetically modified plants is consideration of possible human health effects, especially food allergy. Prospective testing for allergenicity of proteins obtained from sources with no prior history of causing allergy has been difficult because of the absence of valid methods and models. Food allergens may share physicochemical properties that distinguish them from nonallergens, properties that may be used as a tool to predict the inherent… 
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It is hypothesised that food allergens must exhibit sufficient gastro-intestinal stability to reach the intestinal mucosa where absorption and sensitisation can occur and provide prospective testing for allergenicity.
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TLDR
The results indicate that the allergenicity of a newly expressed protein should be carefully evaluated according to not only its digestibility but also other important properties.
Food safety: in vitro digestion tests are non-predictive for allergenic potential of food in stomach insufficiency.
TLDR
In vitro digestion tests used as decision criteria by international food safety authorities are suitable tools for revealing class 1 food allergens, but they do not permit a safety classification of digestion-labile class 2 proteins in settings of stomach insufficiency.
Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their allergenicity.
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
  • 2007
TLDR
The importance of using physiologically relevant in vitro digestion systems for evaluating digestibility of allergens is pointed out and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion protocols should be preferably combined with immunological assays in order to elucidate the role of large digestion-resistant fragments and the influence of the food matrix on the stimulation of the immune system.
Predicting Potential Allergenicity of New proteins Introduced by Biotechnology
TLDR
Interest exists in the design and evaluation of suitable animal models that may provide a more holistic assessment of allergenic potential, and the data indicate that the food matrix can influence responses to individual proteins and, therefore, theFood matrix should be taken into account when developing models for predicting the allergenicity of new proteins introduced by biotechnology.
Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models
TLDR
Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.
Digestion Stability as a Criterion for Protein Allergenicity Assessment
  • T. Fu
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2002
TLDR
This chapter gives an overview of the rationale behind the use of digestion stability as a criterion for protein allergenicity assessment and reviews the available data that may or may not support its use.
Protein Allergenicity in Mice
TLDR
Experience to date indicates that the inherent sensitizing potential of novel food proteins can be evaluated on the basis of antibody responses stimulated by parenteral exposure of BALB/c strain mice, and this work measures allergenic activity as a function of the ability of proteins to provoke IgG and IgE antibody responses.
Assessing Genetically Modified Crops to Minimize the Risk of Increased Food Allergy: A Review
TLDR
The current assessment process has worked well to prevent the unintended introduction of allergens in commercial GM crops, and some scientists and regulators have suggested using animal models, performing broadly targeted serum IgE testing or extensive pre- or post-market clinical tests, but current evidence does not support these tests as being predictive or practical.
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