Stability in symptoms of anxiety and depression as a function of genotype and environment: a longitudinal twin study from ages 3 to 63 years

  title={Stability in symptoms of anxiety and depression as a function of genotype and environment: a longitudinal twin study from ages 3 to 63 years},
  author={Michel G. Nivard and Conor V. Dolan and Kenneth S. Kendler and Kees-Jan Kan and Gonneke Willemsen and Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt and Ram{\'o}n J. L. Lindauer and Jenny H. D. A. van Beek and Lot M. Geels and Meike Bartels and Christel M. Middeldorp and Dorret I. Boomsma},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  pages={1039 - 1049}
Background. The influence of genetic factors on major depressive disorder is lower than on other psychiatric disorders. Heritability estimates mainly derive from cross-sectional studies, and knowledge on the longitudinal aetiology of symptoms of anxiety and depression (SxAnxDep) across the lifespan is limited. We aimed to assess phenotypic, genetic and environmental stability in SxAnxDep between ages 3 and 63 years. Method. We used a cohort-sequential design combining data from 49 524 twins… 

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Genetic effects on fear are developmentally dynamic from middle childhood to young adulthood and decline substantially in importance over time as children age, familial-environmental influences on fears decline in importance.

A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression.

In the largest sample to date, lifetime major depression was moderately heritable, with estimates similar to those in prior studies, and it is suggested that the heritability of major depression is higher in women than in men and that some genetic risk factors for major depression are sex-specific in their effect.

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The risk of having at least 1 psychiatric disorder by age 16 years is much higher than point estimates would suggest and concurrent comorbidity and homotypic and heterotypic continuity are more marked in girls than in boys.

A 35-year longitudinal assessment of cognition and midlife depression symptoms: the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging.

  • C. FranzM. Lyons W. Kremen
  • Psychology, Medicine
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  • 2011
Results suggest that low cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms; this association is partly due to shared genetic influences and crosssectional analyses indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and performance is not linked to specific cognitive domains.

Familial Clustering of Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Australian and Dutch Twins and Siblings

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