We report two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus following endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. The interval between sclerotherapy and the development of carcinoma was 24 months in case 1 and 21 months in case 2. The sclerosant was 5% sodium morrhuate in case 1 (total dose, 10 ml) and 5% ethanolamine oleate in case 2 (45.5 ml). Although no recurrent variceal bleeding occurred after sclerotherapy, we could not perform any curative surgical treatment for esophageal cancer because of the advanced stage of the cancer and the severity of the accompanying liver dysfunction. It is difficult to determine the relationship between sclerotherapy and carcinoma; however, long-term surveillance is essential to avoid overlooking a neoplasm in the esophagus after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy.