Sprinkler head revisited: momentum, forces, and flows in Machian propulsion

@article{Jenkins2011SprinklerHR,
  title={Sprinkler head revisited: momentum, forces, and flows in Machian propulsion},
  author={Alejandro Jenkins},
  journal={European Journal of Physics},
  year={2011},
  volume={32},
  pages={1213 - 1226}
}
Many experimenters, starting with Ernst Mach in 1883, have reported that if a device alternately sucks in and then expels a surrounding fluid, it moves in the same direction as if it only expelled fluid. This surprising phenomenon, which we call Machian propulsion, is explained by conservation of momentum: the outflow efficiently transfers momentum away from the device and into the surrounding medium, while the inflow can do so only by viscous diffusion. However, many previous theoretical… 
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