Spread of Chytridiomycosis Has Caused the Rapid Global Decline and Extinction of Frogs

@article{Skerratt2007SpreadOC,
  title={Spread of Chytridiomycosis Has Caused the Rapid Global Decline and Extinction of Frogs},
  author={Lee F. Skerratt and Lee R. Berger and Richard Speare and Scott D. Cashins and Keith R Mcdonald and Andrea D. Phillott and Harry B. Hines and Nicole Kenyon},
  journal={EcoHealth},
  year={2007},
  volume={4},
  pages={125-134}
}
The global emergence and spread of the pathogenic, virulent, and highly transmissible fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, resulting in the disease chytridiomycosis, has caused the decline or extinction of up to about 200 species of frogs. Key postulates for this theory have been completely or partially fulfilled. In the absence of supportive evidence for alternative theories despite decades of research, it is important for the scientific community and conservation agencies to recognize and… Expand
Chytridiomycosis: a global threat to amphibians
TLDR
The objective of the present review is to describe chytridiomycosis with regard to the major features of the aetiological agent, the host and the environment. Expand
The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians.
TLDR
Chytridiomycosis is an archetypal emerging disease, with a broad host range and significant impacts on host populations and, as such, poses a crucial challenge for wildlife managers and an urgent conservation concern. Expand
The pandemic pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Phylum Chytridiomycota), in Italy
TLDR
The evidence is critically summarized in support of the hypothesis that Bd is an invasive pathogen in Italy and recommendations for immediate research needs are provided, both for basic science and applied conservation. Expand
Chytridiomycosis: a global threat to amphibians.
TLDR
The objective of the present review is to describe chytridiomycosis with regard to the major features of the aetiological agent, the host and the environment. Expand
Global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and amphibian chytridiomycosis in space, time, and host.
TLDR
This review explores the molecular, epidemiological, and ecological evidence that Bd evolved from an endemic ancestral lineage to achieve global prominence via anthropogenically mediated spread and considers the major host and pathogen factors that have led to the occurrence of chytridiomycosis in amphibian species, populations, and communities. Expand
History and recent progress on chytridiomycosis in amphibians
TLDR
These cases show that despite the current advanced state of globalisation, severe pathogens are still spreading and some may currently be excluded by geographic barriers, hence biosecurity still has potential to mitigate spread of undiscovered and unpredictable pathogens of wildlife. Expand
The Link Between Rapid Enigmatic Amphibian Decline and the Globally Emerging Chytrid Fungus
TLDR
A Species Distribution Model is identified and confirmed the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis is confirmed. Expand
Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus in Kenya
TLDR
The most comprehensive survey on the continent to date focusing on Kenya for investigating taxonomic and environmental components in the distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis suggests that Bd may be enzootic in the region. Expand
Enzootic and epizootic dynamics of the chytrid fungal pathogen of amphibians
TLDR
Results suggest that host persistence versus extinction does not require differences in host susceptibility, pathogen virulence, or environmental conditions, and may be just epidemic and endemic population dynamics of the same host–pathogen system. Expand
Genomic epidemiology of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from native and invasive amphibian species in Chile.
TLDR
Phylogenomic analyses revealed that Chilean isolates AVS2, AVS4 and AVS7 group within the global panzootic lineage of Bd (BdGPL) in a single highly supported clade that includes a genotype previously isolated from the United Kingdom. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES
Chytridiomycosis requires a global response
Chytridiomycosis, an emerging pandemic infectious disease of amphibians, is capable of causing high mortality in susceptible amphibians in many environments, even resulting in extinction of species.Expand
Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America.
  • L. Berger, R. Speare, +11 authors H. Parkes
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
TLDR
Experimental data support the conclusion that cutaneous chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of anurans, and it is hypothesize that it is the proximate cause of these recent amphibian declines. Expand
Survival of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Water: Quarantine and Disease Control Implications
TLDR
It is shown that B. dendrobatidis will survive in tap water and in deionized water for 3 and 4 weeks, respectively, and the knowledge that water can remain infective for up to 7 weeks is important for the formulation of disease control and quarantine strategies for the management of water that has been in contact with amphibians. Expand
Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community.
TLDR
An outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama is described and it is argued that this infectious disease has played an important role in amphibian population declines and the high virulence and large number of potential hosts of this emerging infectious disease threaten global amphibian diversity. Expand
Evidence of a chytrid fungus infection involved in the decline of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in protected areas of central Spain
TLDR
Scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques revealed the presence of a chytridiomycosis infection in the skin of the toads, providing evidence that supports chy TRD as the most plausible cause of the decline of the species in the area. Expand
Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline
TLDR
A longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions, and finds a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. Expand
Inconclusiveness of Chytridiomycosis as the Agent in Widespread Frog Declines
TLDR
The case has not yet been made conclusively that the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is the primary agent responsible for widespread declines in amphibian populations, particularly rainforest frog populations in Australia and Central America, and key pieces of information are necessary to better understand the impact of this fungus on frog communities. Expand
Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in introduced bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana in Venezuela
TLDR
The high prevalence of Batrachochytrium but lack of clinical signs or chytridiomycosis-related mortality suggests that R. catesbeiana may be a good reservoir for this parasite in Venezuela and the presence of this emerging pathogen in an introduced amphibian species suggests that trade and introduction of amphibians should be monitored and controlled to halt the spread of this pathogen nationally and internationally. Expand
Historical Evidence of Widespread Chytrid Infection in North American Amphibian Populations
TLDR
To investigate the global distribution, historical occurrence, and infectiousness of this pathogen, postmetamorphic and adult amphibians collected between 1895 and 2001 from 25 countries were examined for the presence of chytrid fungi in the epidermis. Expand
Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone
TLDR
Only five variable nucleotide positions were detected among 10 loci, consistent with the description of B. dendrobatidis as a recently emerged disease agent, and electrophoretic karyotyping of multiple strains demonstrated a number of chromosome length polymorphisms. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...