Sports and trauma in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revisited

  title={Sports and trauma in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revisited},
  author={Carmel Armon},
  journal={Journal of the Neurological Sciences},
  • C. Armon
  • Published 15 November 2007
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Sports and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Are professional soccer players at higher risk for ALS?

  • E. Beghi
  • Psychology
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration
  • 2013
Growing evidence points to the possibility that soccer players with ALS are susceptible individuals who develop the disease in response to combinations of environmental factors, and only cohort and case-control studies carried out with the same design in different European countries can provide a definite answer to this suspected but still unconfirmed association.

Epidemiological evidence that physical activity is not a risk factor for ALS

A literature review of epidemiological studies was conducted according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, establishing (level A) that PA is not a risk factor for ALS.

Is head trauma a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? An evidence based review

  • C. ArmonL. Nelson
  • Medicine
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
  • 2012
It is concluded that evidence based analysis of the epidemiologic literature does not permit concluding that a single instance of head trauma is a risk factor for, or causes, ALS.

Risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : an epidemiologic approach

The studies show that certain risk factors for ALS can offer insight into the disease etiology and pathophysiology and find inverse associations with Se and Zn in relation to the risk of ALS.

Lifetime physical activity and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

An increased risk of ALS with higher levels of leisure time physical activity was found and the lack of association with occupational physical activity and the absence of a dose–response relationship strengthen the hypothesis that not increased physical activity per se but rather a genetic profile or lifestyle promoting physical fitness increases ALS susceptibility.

Hypothesis: Higher prenatal testosterone predisposes ALS patients to improved athletic performance and manual professions

  • P. Wicks
  • Psychology
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
  • 2012
This hypothesis may serve as a starting point for debate and discussion over the nature of ALS risk factors, as well as generating a number of specific testable hypotheses that may yield insight into the genesis of the disease.

Triathletes are over-represented in a population of patients with ALS

It is suggested that vigorous exercise itself may be related to a predominance of bulbar-onset patients, irrespective of head and neck trauma, and a cohort study focusing on triathletes is warranted.

Increased risk and early onset of ALS in professional players from Italian Soccer Teams

Professional soccer players are at higher risk of developing ALS than the general population, and soccer players with ALS develop the disease at a younger than expected age.



Soccer, neurotrauma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: is there a connection?

The literature would still support the concept of soccer, head trauma, and ALS being interrelated, with high levels of athleticism/physical activity perhaps playing an additive part.

Severely increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among Italian professional football players.

It is suggested that playing professional football is a strong risk factor for ALS, and a dose-response relationship between the duration of professional football activity and the risk of ALS was found.

Proportionate mortality of Italian soccer players: Is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis an occupational disease?

A possible connection between dietary supplements or drugs used to enhance sporting performance and ALS pathogenesis is suggested and a high risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is observed among Italian soccer players.

An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to the Evaluation of the Role of Exogenous Risk Factors in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Evidence supported the conclusion that the following were probably not risk factors for ALS: trauma, physical activity, residence in rural areas and alcohol consumption, and evidence in support of smoking being a probable (‘more likely than not’) risk factor for ALS.

Extensive exercise is not harmful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

It is demonstrated that a lifetime of vigorous exercise does not promote onset or progression of motor degeneration in SOD‐1‐mediated ALS, and the results suggest that the level of excitatory input and calcium turnover at motor neurones, both of which should be increased by running activity, do not interfere with the pathophysiology of S OD‐1-mediated ALS.

Trouble on the pitch: are professional football players at increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

The only really consistent epidemiological risk factors for ALS are increasing age, male sex and a family history of ALS, although cigarette smoking may also be a risk factor.

Premorbid weight, body mass, and varsity athletics in ALS

A case-control study of 279 patients with motor neuron diseases and 152 with other neurologic diseases found that subjects with motor neurons diseases were more likely than controls to report they had always been slim or they had been varsity athletes.