Sports and trauma in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revisited

@article{Armon2007SportsAT,
  title={Sports and trauma in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revisited},
  author={Carmel Armon},
  journal={Journal of the Neurological Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={262},
  pages={45-53}
}
  • C. Armon
  • Published 15 November 2007
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sports and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Are professional soccer players at higher risk for ALS?
  • E. Beghi
  • Medicine
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration
  • 2013
TLDR
Growing evidence points to the possibility that soccer players with ALS are susceptible individuals who develop the disease in response to combinations of environmental factors, and only cohort and case-control studies carried out with the same design in different European countries can provide a definite answer to this suspected but still unconfirmed association.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and soccer: an internet survey of 29 Italian players.
TLDR
Results support a possible relationship between soccer and the risk of ALS and suggest a younger age at diagnosis when compared to other European patients with ALS.
Epidemiological evidence that physical activity is not a risk factor for ALS
TLDR
A literature review of epidemiological studies was conducted according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, establishing (level A) that PA is not a risk factor for ALS.
Is head trauma a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? An evidence based review
  • C. Armon, Lorene M Nelson
  • Medicine
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
  • 2012
TLDR
It is concluded that evidence based analysis of the epidemiologic literature does not permit concluding that a single instance of head trauma is a risk factor for, or causes, ALS.
Risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : an epidemiologic approach
TLDR
The studies show that certain risk factors for ALS can offer insight into the disease etiology and pathophysiology and find inverse associations with Se and Zn in relation to the risk of ALS.
Lifetime physical activity and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
TLDR
An increased risk of ALS with higher levels of leisure time physical activity was found and the lack of association with occupational physical activity and the absence of a dose–response relationship strengthen the hypothesis that not increased physical activity per se but rather a genetic profile or lifestyle promoting physical fitness increases ALS susceptibility.
Hypothesis: Higher prenatal testosterone predisposes ALS patients to improved athletic performance and manual professions
  • P. Wicks
  • Medicine
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases
  • 2012
TLDR
This hypothesis may serve as a starting point for debate and discussion over the nature of ALS risk factors, as well as generating a number of specific testable hypotheses that may yield insight into the genesis of the disease.
Triathletes are over-represented in a population of patients with ALS
TLDR
It is suggested that vigorous exercise itself may be related to a predominance of bulbar-onset patients, irrespective of head and neck trauma, and a cohort study focusing on triathletes is warranted.
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References

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Soccer, neurotrauma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: is there a connection?
TLDR
The literature would still support the concept of soccer, head trauma, and ALS being interrelated, with high levels of athleticism/physical activity perhaps playing an additive part.
Severely increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among Italian professional football players.
TLDR
It is suggested that playing professional football is a strong risk factor for ALS, and a dose-response relationship between the duration of professional football activity and the risk of ALS was found.
Proportionate mortality of Italian soccer players: Is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis an occupational disease?
TLDR
A possible connection between dietary supplements or drugs used to enhance sporting performance and ALS pathogenesis is suggested and a high risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is observed among Italian soccer players.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and sports: a case–control study
TLDR
Neither the practice of competitive sports nor sports‐related traumas were found to be associated with an increased risk of ALS, and thepractice of physical activities or sports is not per se a risk factor for ALS.
An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to the Evaluation of the Role of Exogenous Risk Factors in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
TLDR
Evidence supported the conclusion that the following were probably not risk factors for ALS: trauma, physical activity, residence in rural areas and alcohol consumption, and evidence in support of smoking being a probable (‘more likely than not’) risk factor for ALS.
A cause for concern?
  • P. McCrory
  • Medicine
    British journal of sports medicine
  • 2005
TLDR
Although only small numbers of MND patients were identified, this exceeded the statistical likelihood of developing MND in this population, adding to the growing body of concern in regard to the risk of developing this condition from sport.
Longitudinal analysis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mortality in Norway, 1966–1989: evidence for a susceptible subpopulation
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