# Spooky effect in optimal OSPA estimation and how GOSPA solves it

@article{GarcaFernndez2019SpookyEI, title={Spooky effect in optimal OSPA estimation and how GOSPA solves it}, author={{\'A}ngel F. Garc{\'i}a-Fern{\'a}ndez and Lennart Svensson}, journal={2019 22th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION)}, year={2019}, pages={1-8} }

In this paper, we show the spooky effect at a distance that arises in optimal estimation of multiple targets with the optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA) metric. This effect refers to the fact that if we have several independent potential targets at distant locations, a change in the probability of existence of one of them can completely change the optimal estimation of the rest of the potential targets. As opposed to OSPA, the generalised OSPA (GOSPA) metric $(\alpha=2)$ penalises… Expand

#### 5 Citations

A Metric on the Space of Finite Sets of Trajectories for Evaluation of Multi-Target Tracking Algorithms

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
- 2020

A lower bound for the metric is proposed, which is also a metric for sets of trajectories and is computable in polynomial time using linear programming and extended to random finite sets of trajectoryories. Expand

Decentralized Poisson Multi-Bernoulli Filtering for Extended Target Tracking

- Computer Science
- ArXiv
- 2019

A decentralized Poisson multi-Bernoulli filter is proposed to track multiple extended targets using multiple sensors and an efficient implementation is achieved by parametric state representation, utilization of single hypothesis tracks, and fusion of target information based on a fusion mapping. Expand

Decentralized Poisson Multi-Bernoulli Filtering for Vehicle Tracking

- Computer Science
- IEEE Access
- 2020

A decentralized Poisson multi-Bernoulli filter is proposed to track multiple vehicles using multiple high-resolution sensors and an efficient implementation is achieved by parametric state representation, utilization of single hypothesis tracks, and fusion of vehicle information based on a fusion mapping. Expand

An analysis on metric-driven multi-target sensor management: GOSPA versus OSPA

- Engineering, Computer Science
- 2021

This paper presents an analysis on sensor management using a cost function based on a multi-target metric, in particular, the optimal subpattern-assignment (OSPA) metric, the unnormalised OSPA… Expand

A time-weighted metric for sets of trajectories to assess multi-object tracking algorithms

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2021

This paper proposes a metric for sets of trajectories to evaluate multi-object tracking algorithms that includes timeweighted costs for localisation errors of properly detected targets, for false… Expand

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