Incidence of spontaneous tumors was examined in 77 male and 73 female SD-JCL rats reared throughout their lifespan of 5 to 36 months. Total tumor incidences were 60% and 95% for males and females, respectively. The sex difference was mostly attributable to a high incidence of mammary tumor in females. The pituitary tumor was found in 30% of males and 66% of females aged 5 to 36 months while islet cell tumor of the pancreas and thyroid tumor occurred later and the incidence of latter was particularly high in rats lived more than 2 years. Myeloid leukemia appeared to occur as early as 5 months of age.