A triad of signs constitutes Boerhaave syndrome: forceful vomiting, chest pain and subcutaneous emphysema. The syndrome results from spontaneous rupture of the oesophageal wall leading to an oeso-pleural or oeso-mediastinal fistula. Positive diagnosis is established with a water-soluble swallow, sometimes coupled with computed tomography of the thorax. Boerhaave syndrome is a surgical emergency. We report three cases of spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus and analyze the importance of emergency surgery as well as emergency treatment of the sepsis, an important prognosis factor.