Spontaneous flower constancy and learning in honey bees as a function of colour

@article{Hill1997SpontaneousFC,
  title={Spontaneous flower constancy and learning in honey bees as a function of colour},
  author={Peggy S. M. Hill and Patrick H. Wells and Harrington Wells},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1997},
  volume={54},
  pages={615-627}
}
When presented with an artificial flower patch of blue and yellow pedicellate flowers, individual honey bees, Apis mellifera L., became constant to one of the two flower colours, rarely even sampling the alternative colour. [] Key Result This behaviour was not modified by quality or quantity of reward, training to the experimental site, group effects or presence of odour during trials.
Effect of a colour dimorphism on the flower constancy of honey bees and bumble bees
TLDR
When bees were forced to specialize on one of two previously rewarding flower colours by depleting one colour of reward, honey bees required almost twice as many flower visits to specialized on the rewarding flower colour as bumble bees.
Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Response to Differences in Handling Time, Rewards and Flower Colours
TLDR
It is shown that when handling time is correlated with flower-colour morphs on a pedicellate artificial flower patch, a honey bee's foraging behaviour is dependent on the flower colours used in the choice tests, which supports a honeybee foraging model where constraints are a significant factor in decision making.
Flower constancy in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) depends on ecologically realistic rewards
TLDR
The results clearly show that honey bee workers do become more constant to blue or yellow with increasing nectar rewards, provided that the rewards used are ecologically realistic.
Learning and Memory During Foraging of The Blue Orchard Bee, Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
TLDR
The ability of the solitary blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, to learn and remember information when foraging is explored, and innate flower color preference is tested using blue and white flower patches, and yellow and blue flower patches.
Use of Flower Color-Cue Memory by Honey Bee Foragers Continues when Rewards No Longer Differ between Flower Colors
TLDR
Results showed that color-cue memory decline was not a passive time-decay process and that information update in honey bees does not occur readily without new experiences of difference in rewarding flowers.
Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) use of color and pattern in making foraging choices.
TLDR
The rate with which the less rewarding flower type is chosen appears to be a function of honeybee use of cognitive and sensory modalities, rather than limited memory and correlative abilities.
Does the Flower Constancy of Bumble Bees Reflect Foraging Economics
TLDR
There was a strong positive relationship between degree of flower constancy and net rate of energy gain when flowers were spaced farther apart, indicating that constant bees were more economic foragers than inconstant bees.
Reward Frequency: Effects on Flower Choices Made by Different Honeybee Races in Turkey
TLDR
The European honeybee races Apis mellifera armeniaca, A.m. cypria, and A. m.
Bees’ subtle colour preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration
TLDR
It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower colours of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral colours and of flower pigmentation.
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The behaviour of honeybees (Apis mellifera) foraging in a patch of artificial flowers was studied experimentally with colour and odour as manipulated variables to establish individually constant foraging patterns.
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