Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics☆

@article{Field2013SpontaneousEF,
  title={Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics☆},
  author={David Field and Oksana Plekan and Andrew Martin Cassidy and Richard Balog and Nykola C. Jones and Jack Dunger},
  journal={International Reviews in Physical Chemistry},
  year={2013},
  volume={32},
  pages={345 - 392}
}
When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108 V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering and capture of low energy electrons by molecular films. In this review it is described how this discovery was made and the properties of materials that display the spontelectric effect, so-called… 

Electric field structures in thin films: formation and properties.

It is shown that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite sponteLECTrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale by combining layers of differentSpontelectric materials.

A review of recent progress in understanding the spontelectric state of matter

Abstract The spontelectric state of matter is exemplified by the presence of static, spontaneous electric fields extending throughout thin films of dipolar solids. The spontelectric state was

Investigations into the nature of spontelectrics: nitrous oxide diluted in xenon.

A simplified theoretical model is developed which illustrates that electric fields can be understood in terms of dilution-dependent dipole orientation, and shows that dipole-dipole interactions are an essential ingredient for the creation of the spontelectric state.

Dipole-Oriented Molecular Solids Can Undergo a Phase Change and Still Maintain Electrical Polarization

It has recently been demonstrated that nanoscale molecular films can spontaneously assemble to self-generate intrinsic electric fields that can exceed 108 V/m. These electric fields originate from

Spontaneous polarization of thick solid ammonia films.

It is shown that temperature-programmed contact potential difference measurements performed by a Kelvin probe and especially their temperature derivative can track film reorganization/reconstruction and crystallization at temperatures significantly lower than the film desorption.

The optical absorption spectra of spontaneously electrical solids: the case of nitrous oxide.

Results demonstrate how the spontelectric effect can be used as a tool for exploring the structure of solids and give a graphic image of the structural changes that take place close to the known phase change at 47 K/48 K.

Crystallites and Electric Fields in Solid Ammonia

Absorption spectra of vacuum‐deposited films of ammonia have been obtained, giving a more quantitative description than the nebulous term amorphous, as applied to solid ammonia, and enabling a lower limit of 1.58 nm on the size of crystallites in the low temperature regime.

Sign flipping of spontaneous polarization in vapour-deposited films of small polar organic molecules.

The investigated bulk effect for 18 small organic molecules and found that, as a rule, alcohol films have the negative end on the vacuum side at all temperatures, which expands substantially the experimental information regarding spontaneous polarization in vapour-deposited films.

The role of thermal history on spontaneous polarization and phase transitions of amorphous solid water films studied by contact potential difference measurements.

It is demonstrated that temperature-programmed contact potential difference measurements employed by a Kelvin probe under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their temperature derivative can track films' restructure and crystallization occurring in amorphous solid water (ASW) at temperatures well below the onset of film desorption.

Non-linear and non-local behaviour in spontaneously electrical solids.

RAIRS data confirm that the behaviour of spontelectrics is governed by an expression for the degree of dipole orientation, which is continuous in temperature, but with a discontinuity in the derivative, and that the temperature of deposition associated with this discontinuity matches the temperature above which dipole order switches from the expected reduction with temperature to an increase with temperature.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES

Spontaneous electric fields in films of cis-methyl formate.

It is found that the degree of dipole alignment and the corresponding electric field in films of cis-methyl formate can have a counter-intuitive temperature dependence, increasing six-fold between 80 K and 89 K, in sharp contrast to the pronounced and expected fall with deposition temperature seen both here between 50 K and 75 K and in numerous other species.

A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

aterials have been a defining feature of the evolution of human culture and the electrical properties of materials are now at the forefront of this evolution. Advances occur both through the

Spontaneous dipole alignment in films of N2O.

Experimental data obtained using low energy electron beams are presented which show that films of N2O, of several hundred monolayers (ML), spontaneously acquire a positive potential of as high as 5

A new form of spontaneously polarized material.

The discovery of a new form of spontaneously polarized material which can arise through a mechanism of non-linear dipole alignment in a single domain in which dipoles alignment generates the electric field within the film and the field generates dipole aligned.

Ferroelectricity in Water Ice

Partially proton-ordered ice I (cubic) was grown from the vapor phase, from 40 to nearly 150 K. It is believed to be metastable and oriented by the asymmetry of the solid−vacuum interface during

A molecular view of vapor deposited glasses.

Simulations reveal that newly formed layers of the growing vapor-deposited film exhibit greater mobility than the remainder of the material, thereby enabling a reorganization of the film as it is grown and revealing that "stable" glasses exhibit a distinct layered structure in the direction normal to the substrate that is responsible for their unusual properties.

ELECTRONIC DENSITY OF STATE IN METAL/POLYIMIDE LANGMUIR-BLODGETT FILM INTERFACE AND ITS TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Surface potentials of heat-treated polyimide (PI) Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films deposited on Au, Cr, and Al electrodes were measured in a dark vacuum vessel at various temperatures as a function of

Absolute cross section for trapping low-energy electrons (0–18eV) in molecular films of n-hexane

We propose an apparatus and method, based on the absorption of photon of energy ranging between 1.5 and 3.54eV, to measure the absolute cross section for trapping low-energy electrons in a molecular

Ferroelectric order in individual nanometre-scale crystals.

This work points the way to multi-Tbit/in(2) memories and provides a glimpse of the structural and electrical manifestations of ferroelectricity down to its ultimate limits.

Energy level alignment at organic semiconductor/metal interfaces: effect of polar self-assembled monolayers at the interface.

The study showed that when a substrate is modified by SAMs (or similarly by any adsorbed molecules), a new effective work function value is achieved; however, it does not necessarily imply that the new modified surface will behave similar to a different metal where the work function is equal to theeffective work function of the modified surface.
...