Spontaneous creation of the universe from nothing

  title={Spontaneous creation of the universe from nothing},
  author={Dongshan He and Dong-feng Gao and Qing-yu Cai},
  journal={Physical Review D},
An interesting idea is that the universe could be spontaneously created from nothingbut no rigorousproof has been given. In this paperwe present such a proof based on the analytic solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation (WDWE). Explicit solutions of the WDWE for the special operator ordering factorp= -2 (or 4) show thatonce a small true vacuum bubble is created by quantum fluctuations of themetastable false vacuumit can expand exponentially no matter whether the bubble is closed,flat,or open… 

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When x ≫ |ν 2 − 1/4|, Bessel functions take the asymptotic forms, Iν(x) ∼ e x / √ 2πx, Kν(x) ∼ asymptotic forms to calculate S(a) and a(t) for large bubbles


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