Sponge spicules as blueprints for the biofabrication of inorganic–organic composites and biomaterials

  title={Sponge spicules as blueprints for the biofabrication of inorganic–organic composites and biomaterials},
  author={Werner E G M{\"u}ller and Xiaohong Wang and Fuzhai Cui and Klaus Peter Jochum and Wolfgang Tremel and Joachim Bill and Heinz C. Schr{\"o}der and Filipe Natalio and Ute Schlossmacher and Matthias Wiens},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
  pages={397 - 413}
While most forms of multicellular life have developed a calcium-based skeleton, a few specialized organisms complement their body plan with silica. However, of all recent animals, only sponges (phylum Porifera) are able to polymerize silica enzymatically mediated in order to generate massive siliceous skeletal elements (spicules) during a unique reaction, at ambient temperature and pressure. During this biomineralization process (i.e., biosilicification) hydrated, amorphous silica is deposited… CONTINUE READING


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