Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa

@article{Borchiellini2001SpongePA,
  title={Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa},
  author={Carole Borchiellini and Micha{\"e}l Manuel and Eliane Alivon and Nicole Boury‐Esnault and Jean Vacelet and Yannick Le Parco},
  journal={Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2001},
  volume={14}
}
In order to allow critical evaluation of the interrelationships between the three sponge classes, and to resolve the question of mono‐ or paraphyly of sponges (Porifera), we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify almost the entire nucleic acid sequence of the 18S rDNA from several hexactinellid, demosponge and calcareous sponge species. The amplification products were cloned, sequenced and then aligned with previously reported sequences from other sponges and nonsponge metazoans… 

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