Spoken Versus Typed Human and Computer Dialogue Tutoring

@article{Litman2006SpokenVT,
  title={Spoken Versus Typed Human and Computer Dialogue Tutoring},
  author={Diane J. Litman and Carolyn Penstein Ros{\'e} and Katherine Forbes-Riley and Kurt VanLehn and Dumisizwe Bhembe and Scott Silliman},
  journal={Int. J. Artif. Intell. Educ.},
  year={2006},
  volume={16},
  pages={145-170}
}
While human tutors typically interact with students using spoken dialogue, most computer dialogue tutors are text-based. We have conducted 2 experiments comparing typed and spoken tutoring dialogues, one in a human-human scenario, and another in a human-computer scenario. In both experiments, we compared spoken versus typed tutoring for learning gains and time on task, and also measured the correlations of learning gains with dialogue features. Our main results are that changing the modality… 
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It is shown that the introduction of a new concept into the dialogue by students positively correlates with learning, but student attempts at deeper reasoning do not, and the human tutor's attempts to direct the dialogue negatively correlate with learning.
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