Initially, strain CUAS-1T (T = type strain), which was isolated from a frozen triturate of Culex annulus mosquitoes collected in Taiwan, was thought to be a member of spiroplasma group VII. This placement was based on the spiroplasma deformation test titer observed when strain CUAS-1T spiroplasmas were tested with Spiroplasma monobiae MQ-1T antiserum. The results of subsequent reciprocal spiroplasma deformation, metabolism inhibition, and growth inhibition tests clearly revealed that strain CUAS-1T is not serologically related to previously described spiroplasma groups (groups I to XXIV) and thus is a representative of a new group, group XXV. Strain CUAS-1T was characterized by using the minimal standards for mollicute species descriptions. During logarithmic-phase growth, strain CUAS-1T cells are characteristically very short helices with 1.5 to 2 helical turns (1 to 2 microns), highly motile, and bounded by a single trilaminar membrane and form granular colonies with satellites when the organism is grown aerobically on MID medium containing 1.6% agar. Growth in MID broth occurs at temperatures ranging from 10 to 37 degrees C, and the optimum temperature is 30 degrees C. Substrate utilization tests revealed that cholesterol is required for growth, that glucose is hydrolyzed, and that arginine is not hydrolyzed both in the presence and in the absence of glucose. The genome of strain CUAS-1T is 1,080 kbp long, and the guanine-plus-cytosine content is 26 +/- 1 mol%. On the basis of the results of our studies we propose that strain CUAS-1T (group XXV) should be placed in a new species, Spiroplasma diminutum. Strain CUAS-1 (= ATCC 49235) is the type strain of S. diminutum.