Spiral grain—An adaptation of trees to withstand stem breakage caused by wind-induced torsion

Abstract

Expressions are derived for the internal mechanical stress components in trees when exposed to bending and torsion by wind forces. The crown is modeled as rectangular, and the stem taper so that the maximum bending stress is equal at all heights. Trees with asymmetric crowns will undergo torsion as well as bending, and the shear stresses associated with… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/BF02990549

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