Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications

  title={Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications},
  author={Igor Žuti{\'c} and Jaroslav Fabian and Sankar Das Sarma},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin… 
  • M. Flatté
  • Physics, Medicine
    IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
  • 2007
Rapid progress in understanding the fundamental physics of nonlinear spin-polarized electronic transport in metals and semiconductors suggests new applications for spintronic devices in fast nonvolatile memory as well as logic devices, with or without magnetic materials or magnetic fields.
Spintronics and spintronics materials
The review concerns the fundamentals of spintronics (spin-transport electronics). The material covers spin-spin interactions and spin relaxation in semiconductors as well as spin and spin injection
Spintronics and magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors and devices
Abstract Spintronics (also known as spin-based electronics) is an emerging technology that exploits the intrinsic spin transport of electrons other than their fundamental electronic charge. Organic
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Abstract Over the last decade, the construction and analysis of spintronic devices have been explored. This mini-review focuses on the basic spintronic phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance,
Nonlocal Electronic Spin Detection, Spin Accumulation and the Spin Hall effect
In recent years, electrical spin injection and detection has grown into a lively area of research in the field of spintronics. Spin injection into a paramagnetic material is usually achieved by means
Bipolar spintronics: from spin injection to spin-controlled logic
An impressive success of spintronic applications has been typically realized in metal-based structures which utilize magnetoresistive effects for substantial improvements in the performance of
Oscillatory spin-polarized tunnelling from silicon quantum wells controlled by electric field.
Electrostatic modification of the magnitude of spin polarization in a silicon quantum well, and detection thereof by means of tunnelling to a ferromagnet are demonstrated, producing prominent oscillations of tunnel magnetoresistance of up to 8%.
Introduction to spintronics and 2D materials
Abstract Spin-based technologies, in the form of magnetic compasses, have existed for thousands of years. However, it is only in the last century that the concept of spin, as a pure quantum


Theoretical perspectives on spintronics and spin-polarized transport
Selected problems of fundamental importance for spintronics and spin-polarized transport are reviewed, some of them with a special emphasis on their applications in quantum computing and coherent
Novel Aspects of Spin-Polarized Transport and Spin Dynamics
There is a renewed interest to study spin-polarized transport and spin dynamics in various electronic materials. Motivation to examine the spin degrees of freedom (mostly in electrons, but also in
Spin-galvanic effect
In contrast to previous experiments, where spin-polarized currents were driven by electric fields in semiconductor, the complementary situation where electron spins drive a current without the need of an external electric field is demonstrated.
Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future
This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.
Electrical detection of spin precession in a metallic mesoscopic spin valve
It is shown that the spin direction can be controlled by inducing a coherent spin precession caused by an applied perpendicular magnetic field, and the output voltage of the device is sensitive to the spin degree of freedom only.
Spintronics: Sources and Challenge. Personal Perspective
Spintronics emerged very recently as a quickly developing interdisciplinary field in the framework of solid-state physics with tempting technological perspectives. This promise is based on the active
Giant magnetoresistance in organic spin-valves
The injection, transport and detection of spin-polarized carriers using an organic semiconductor as the spacer layer in a spin-valve structure is reported, yielding low-temperature giant magnetoresistance effects as large as 40 per cent.
Electrical spin injection in a ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructure
Conventional electronics is based on the manipulation of electronic charge. An intriguing alternative is the field of ‘spintronics’, wherein the classical manipulation of electronic spin in
Spintronics : electron spin coherence , entanglement , and transport
The prospect of building spintronic devices in which electron spins store and transport information has attracted strong attention in recent years. Here we present some of our representative
Spin injection in metals and semiconductors
The propagation of spin-polarized currents from a magnetic to a nonmagnetic material is fundamental to spintronics and, furthermore, has become a topic of great interest for basic research. The