Spinal-epidural anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the management of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy between combined spinal-epidural block and general anesthesia in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). METHODS A total of 180 patients undergoing PNL were randomly allocated to receive spinal-epidural anesthesia plus intravenous patient-controlled anesthesia with tramadol or general anesthesia… CONTINUE READING