Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians.

@article{Stevens1996SpinalAO,
  title={Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians.},
  author={C. Stevens and G. M. Brenner},
  journal={European journal of pharmacology},
  year={1996},
  volume={316 2-3},
  pages={
          205-10
        }
}
Direct intraspinal injection of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the alpha-adrenergic agents dexmedetomidine and clonidine, produced a dose-dependent elevation of pain thresholds in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. Significant analgesic effects were noted for at least 4 h. The analgesic effect of intraspinal dexmedetomidine or epinephrine was blocked by systemic pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, but not with the alpha… Expand
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