Spinal Nerve Innervation to the Sonic Muscle and Sonic Motor Nucleus in Red Piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes, Ostariophysi)

  title={Spinal Nerve Innervation to the Sonic Muscle and Sonic Motor Nucleus in Red Piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes, Ostariophysi)},
  author={Atsushi Onuki and Yasushige Ohmori and Hiroaki Somiya},
  journal={Brain, Behavior and Evolution},
  pages={111 - 122}
The red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri, produces sounds by rapid contractions of a pair of extrinsic sonic muscles. The detailed innervation pattern of the sonic muscle of the red piranha was investigated. The sonic muscle is innervated by branches (sonic branches) of the third (S3so), fourth (S4so), and fifth (S5so) spinal nerves. The average total number of nerve fibers contained in the right sonic branches (n = 5; standard length, SL, 71–85 mm) was 151.8 (standard deviation, SD, 28.3). The… 

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