Spin Ice State in Frustrated Magnetic Pyrochlore Materials

@article{Bramwell2001SpinIS,
  title={Spin Ice State in Frustrated Magnetic Pyrochlore Materials},
  author={Steven T Bramwell and Michel J. P. Gingras},
  journal={Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={294},
  pages={1495 - 1501}
}
A frustrated system is one whose symmetry precludes the possibility that every pairwise interaction (“bond”) in the system can be satisfied at the same time. Such systems are common in all areas of physical and biological science. In the most extreme cases, they can have a disordered ground state with “macroscopic” degeneracy; that is, one that comprises a huge number of equivalent states of the same energy. Pauling's description of the low-temperature proton disorder in water ice was perhaps… 

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