Spin–orbital separation in the quasi-one-dimensional Mott insulator Sr2CuO3

@article{Schlappa2012SpinorbitalSI,
  title={Spin–orbital separation in the quasi-one-dimensional Mott insulator Sr2CuO3},
  author={J. Schlappa and Krzysztof Wohlfeld and Kejin Zhou and Martin Mourigal and Maurits W. Haverkort and Vladimir N. Strocov and Liviu Hozoi and Claude Monney and Satoshi Nishimoto and S. K. Singh and Alexandre Revcolevschi and Jean-S{\'e}bastien Caux and Luc Patthey and Henrik M. R{\o}nnow and Jeroen van den Brink and Thorsten Schmitt},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2012},
  volume={485},
  pages={82-85}
}
When viewed as an elementary particle, the electron has spin and charge. When binding to the atomic nucleus, it also acquires an angular momentum quantum number corresponding to the quantized atomic orbital it occupies. Even if electrons in solids form bands and delocalize from the nuclei, in Mott insulators they retain their three fundamental quantum numbers: spin, charge and orbital. The hallmark of one-dimensional physics is a breaking up of the elementary electron into its separate degrees… 

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