Spiders of the genus Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae): a review of biological, medical and psychological aspects regarding envenomations

  title={Spiders of the genus Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae): a review of biological, medical and psychological aspects regarding envenomations},
  author={Richard S. Vetter},
Abstract Loxosceles spiders are of concern outside of the arachnological world because their bites can cause occasional necrotic skin lesions and/or systemic complications; these manifestations are known as loxoscelism. Once these spiders became well associated as medical entities, much notoriety was attained through the publication of medical case histories as well as tales of horrific wounds in the general literature. Although most Loxosceles spider bites are unremarkable, require only… 
Distribution and medical aspects of Loxosceles rufescens, one of the most invasive spiders of the world (Araneae: Sicariidae).
Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution
A fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles is described, the first fatal case described in Europe.
Venom of the Brazilian Spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) Contains Active Sphingomyelinase D: Potential for Toxicity after Envenomation
It is shown for the first time that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D.
Chemical Control of Loxosceles intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae) with Pyrethroids: Field and Laboratory Evaluation
The susceptibility of L. intermedia to pyrethroid insecticides currently used for the control of spiders in both field and laboratory conditions is evaluated and the use of lambda-cyhalothrin-based products for L.intermedia control is discussed.
Synanthropic habitats of the Mediterranean recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) in central Italy
Abstract The Mediterranean recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) is a public health concern due to its ability to inject venom that can cause skin lesions, referred to as loxoscelism.
Brown recluse (L. rufescens) can bite in Northern Italy, too: first case report and review of the literature
This case report documents a confirmed bite by a violin spider on a medical student in Pavia, Italy, the first documented case of a L. rufescens bite in Northern Italy, to the best of the authors' knowledge.
A Case Report of Brown Recluse Spider Bite
This case presents a case that involves a brown recluse spider bite in a 59-year-old female with malnutrition and polysubstance use who developed systemic symptoms and a dermonecrotic wound and highlights the challenges of diagnosing a Brown recluseSpider bites, particularly in a patient with multiple risk factors for necrotizing soft tissue infection.
Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation in small animals.
A comprehensive review of relevant literature regarding the brown recluse spider (BRS) is provided and those criteria that must be satisfied before making a diagnosis ofbrown recluse envenomation are defined.
Loxoscelism: a case report from Bandar Abbas in south of Iran
Cases of loxoscelism are likely in Bandar Abbas (southern Iran) for the first time as the only species of this genus recorded from Iran, Loxosceles rufescens, or the Mediterranean recluse spider, has a cosmopolitan distribution and have already been recorded from numerous parts of Iran, includingBandar Abbas.


Reports of Envenomation by Brown Recluse Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) Outnumber Verifications of Loxosceles Spiders in Florida
Florida does not have sufficient widespread populations of Loxosceles spiders to warrant consideration of brown recluse spider envenomation as a probable etiology of dermonecrosis, and Florida health care would improve if medical personnel would consider the multitude of other etiologies that manifest in dermoneCrosis.
Brown spiders and loxoscelism.
Diagnoses of brown recluse spider bites (loxoscelism) greatly outnumber actual verifications of the spider in four western American states.
Medical aspects of spider bites.
Many spiders blamed for causing medical mischief have been elevated to medical significance via circumstantial evidence, poor reporting, and repetitive citation in the literature; several species have been shown to be harmless with more stringent scientific evidence involving verified bites in humans.
[Brown spider bite].
Treatment of the bite of the brown recluse spider varies from conservative to more active approaches, and recent results have been reported with Avlosulfon (dapsone), which is claimed to cure necrotic cutaneous ulcerations, presumably by reducing the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
An Infestation of 2,055 Brown Recluse Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) and No Envenomations in a Kansas Home: Implications for Bite Diagnoses in Nonendemic Areas
Considering the levels of infestations with no bites in the homes presented here, nonendemic areas in the United States, which typically lack recluse spider populations and have had zero to few verified specimens of the spider, do not have sufficient numbers of brown recluse spiders to make envenomation a likely scenario.
Necrotic arachnidism: the mythology of a modern plague
Reports of presumptive brown recluse spider bites reinforce improbable diagnosis in regions of North America where the spider is not endemic.
  • R. VetterS. Bush
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2002
The diagnosis of a presumptive bite is a misdiagnosis that reinforces the assumption that brown recluse spiders are common local etiologic agents of necrosis, and Physicians' awareness of these conditions will increase diagnostic accuracy in areas of North America where bites from brown reclused spiders are improbable.
Myth: idiopathic wounds are often due to brown recluse or other spider bites throughout the United States.
  • R. Vetter
  • Medicine
    The Western journal of medicine
  • 2000
The biologic distribution of the brown recluse and related recluse species indicates that many diagnoses made on cases occurring in the western United States are incorrect.