Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces

@article{Briceo2012SpidersAS,
  title={Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces},
  author={R. Daniel Brice{\~n}o and William G. Eberhard},
  journal={Naturwissenschaften},
  year={2012},
  volume={99},
  pages={337-341}
}
Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped… 
The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders
TLDR
It is shown that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa.
An anti-adhesive surface coating reduces adhesion during contact with cribellar threads in Pholcus phalangioides (Araneae, Pholcidae) but not in the web-owning spider Uloborus plumipes(Araneae, Uloboridae)
TLDR
An index of adhesion for differently treated legs of the two species in a cribellar U. plumipes capture thread is calculated and shows that legs of P. phalangioides stick significantly stronger when washed with n-hexane, which is interpreted as an organic surface coating lowering the adhesive force of the cribellar thread.
Comparative Contact Mechanics
TLDR
Taking the new data on hairy adhesive pads in arachnids into account, it is attempted to explain, why the evolution of spatular sizes is governed by phylogenetic constraints and the previously postulated relationship between body mass and degree of contact splitting does not hold.
Jaime Chastain
  • 2013
TLDR
There is still a lot to be learned about spiders, but great steps have been made toward understanding the behaviors of the orb-web weaving spiders, anatomical significances and ecological interactions of spiders.
The Thin Ribbon Silk of the Brown Recluse Spider: Structure, Mechanical Behavior, and Biomimicry
Silk has enormous potential as a next-generation material: it is a biopolymer spun from protein at ambient temperature and pressure, and the best spider silks are as strong as steel and tougher than
Toughness-enhancing metastructure in the recluse spider's looped ribbon silk
In nature's toughest materials, sacrificial bonds and hidden lengths play a key role in dissipating energy. Here, we show that the recluse spider (Loxosceles genus) spins its 50 nm-thin silk ribbons
Risky behaviors by the host could favor araneophagy of the spitting spider Scytodes globula on the hacklemesh weaver Metaltella simoni
TLDR
Behavioral interplay mediated the outcome of the interactions between the two coexisting predators assessed in this study and points to the versatility of this trait.
Adhesive Secretions in Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)
TLDR
An overview on the occurrence, properties, and associated structures of adhesive secretions in harvestmen and discuss their biological functions is given.
Biomimetic Combs as Antiadhesive Tools to Manipulate Nanofibers
TLDR
The nanofibrous multifunctional materials have attracted a lot of attention because of the benefits of their special structure, but their inherent instability makes it difficult to evaluate the physical properties of these materials.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Can a spider web be too sticky? Tensile mechanics constrains the evolution of capture spiral stickiness in orb‐weaving spiders
TLDR
The results indicate that evolutionary changes in the stickiness of the capture spiral are largely constrained by the strength of the fiber the glue is placed on rather than by the chemistry of the glue itself, which implies that orb webs function optimally when threads are able to detach and adhere repeatedly to struggling prey.
Adhesive recruitment by the viscous capture threads of araneoid orb-weaving spiders
TLDR
This study tests the hypothesis that viscous thread overcomes this limitation by implementing a suspension bridge mechanism (SBM) that recruits the adhesion of multiple thread droplets, and measures the stickiness of six species' viscous threads whose profiles range from small, closely spaced droplets to large, widely spaced Droplets.
An organic coating keeps orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Araneoidea, Araneidae) from sticking to their own capture threads
More than 95% of orb-weaving spider species ensure prey capture success by producing viscous threads equipped with gluey droplets. However, this trap may bear serious risks for the web-inhabiting
Viscoelastic solids explain spider web stickiness.
TLDR
The adhesive forces required to separate a small microscopic probe after bringing it in contact with a single glue droplet are measured, which are highly rate-dependent and two orders of magnitude higher than the capillary forces.
Glycoprotein glue beneath a spider web's aqueous coat
The garden spider's web filters from the air insects that arrive with considerable kinetic energy. Critical for the absorption of this energy are the tensile strength and extensibility of the silk
The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders
TLDR
It is shown that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa.
The role of granules within viscous capture threads of orb-weaving spiders
TLDR
It is hypothesized that granules serve to anchor larger, surrounding layers of transparent glycoprotein glue to the axial fibers of the thread, thereby equipping droplets to resist slippage on the axIAL fibers as these droplets generate adhesion, elongate under a load, and transfer force to theAxial fibers.
THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPIDER'S SILK AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DESIGN OF ORB-WEBS
TLDR
The physical properties of the viscid and frame silks allow them to function effectively as shock absorbers and structural elements, respectively; and allow the orb-web to function as an aerial filter with a minimum expenditure of material and energy.
The Integument of Water-walking Arthropods: Form and Function
BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERS FOR THE HIGHER CLASSIFICATION OF ORB‐WEAVING SPIDERS
  • W. Eberhard
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1982
TLDR
This paper describes several behaviors of orb weavers that are conservative enough to characterize the classical subfamily and family groupings which have been based on adult morphology and can thus be used to indicate relationships between them, a topic on which there is currently substantial disagreement.
...
...