Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) follow gaze around barriers: evidence for perspective taking?

@article{Amici2009SpiderM,
  title={Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) follow gaze around barriers: evidence for perspective taking?},
  author={Federica Amici and Filippo Aureli and Elisabetta Visalberghi and Josep Call},
  journal={Journal of comparative psychology},
  year={2009},
  volume={123 4},
  pages={
          368-74
        }
}
Gaze following is an adaptive skill that might have been selected in social species, such as many nonhuman primates, to obtain information about food location, predators, and social interactions. The authors investigated the ability of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to follow the gaze of a human around barriers and the presence of "looking back" behavior. In the 1st experiment, a human looked to a target location inside the testing room, whereas in the 2nd… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Gaze following in baboons (Papio anubis): juveniles adjust their gaze and body position to human's head redirections
TLDR
How the age class and the individual expertise of the baboons could lead to some modulations in terms of attentiveness, motivation, or cognitive abilities, and thus likely influence gaze following is discussed.
Gaze Following in Ungulates: Domesticated and Non-domesticated Species Follow the Gaze of Both Humans and Conspecifics in an Experimental Context
TLDR
This study provides the first experimental evidence of gaze following skills in non-domesticated ungulates, and contributes to understanding how gaze following Skills are distributed in another taxon—an essential endeavor to identify the evolutionary pressures leading to the emergence of gazeFollowing skills across taxa.
Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze.
TLDR
It is suggested that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts, because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans.
Gaze following in an asocial reptile (Eublepharis macularius)
TLDR
Whether an asocial reptile, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), could reliably use the visual indicators of attention to follow the gaze of a conspecific around a barrier is investigated and points toward growing evidence for gaze-following ability in reptiles, who are typically categorised as asocial.
Chimpanzee uses manipulative gaze cues to conceal and reveal information to foraging competitor
TLDR
The results substantiate descriptive reports of how chimpanzees use gaze to manipulate others, and are the first quantitative data to identify behavioral mechanisms of tactical deception.
Male long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) understand the target of facial threat
TLDR
This investigation of whether monkeys understand the target of attention of conspecifics using a new paradigm, based on expectancy violation, implies that monkey species share social cognitive capacities underlying VPT with apes and humans.
Development of Gaze Following Abilities in Wolves (Canis Lupus)
TLDR
It is demonstrated that following another individuals' gaze around a barrier is not restricted to primates and corvids but is also present in canines, with remarkable between-group similarities in the ontogeny of this behaviour.
Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) understand what conspecifics can see in a competitive situation
TLDR
This work has provided the first unequivocal evidence of VPT in a monkey species, suggesting that this precursor to ToM is an evolutionarily conserved capacity present in monkeys, apes and humans.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 42 REFERENCES
What do Diana monkeys know about the focus of attention of a conspecific?
The ontogeny of gaze following in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta
TLDR
It is suggested that in the period between infancy and adulthood individuals of both species come to integrate their gaze-following skills with their more general social-cognitive knowledge about other animate beings and their behaviour, and so become able to deploy their gazing skills in a more flexible manner.
Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics
TLDR
Individuals from five primate species were tested experimentally for their ability to follow the visual gaze of conspecifics to an outside object, and individuals from all species reliably followed the gaze of ConspecificS.
Do capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella, know what conspecifics do and do not see?
TLDR
These experiments provide little support for the hypothesis that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to what another individual does or does not see, and compare the results with those obtained with chimpanzees in the same paradigm and discuss the evolution of primate social cognition.
All great ape species follow gaze to distant locations and around barriers.
TLDR
The authors compared the gaze-following skills of all 4 great ape species and found that individuals from all species reliably followed the human's gaze direction and sometimes even checked back when they found no target.
An infant chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) follows human gaze
TLDR
By the age of 13 months, the subject showed reliable following responses to the object that was indicated by the various cues, including glancing alone, which clearly showed that the subject's performance was controlled by the "social" properties of the experimenter-given cues but not by the non-social, local-enhancing peripheral properties.
I know you are not looking at me: capuchin monkeys’ (Cebus apella) sensitivity to human attentional states
TLDR
The results suggest that capuchins are sensitive to eye direction but this sensitivity does not lead to differential pointing trained in laboratory experiments, and is the first firm behavioral evidence that non-human primates attend to the subtle states of eyes in a food requesting task.
Spontaneous social orienting and gaze following in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta)
TLDR
This is the first study to use telemetric eye-tracking to quantitatively monitor gaze in any nonhuman animal during locomotion, feeding, and social interaction and the first to report gaze following during spontaneous interaction in naturalistic social environments.
...
...