Sphingosine kinase activation mediates ischemic preconditioning in murine heart.


BACKGROUND Phosphorylation of sphingosine by sphingosine kinase (SK) is the rate-limiting step in the cellular synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The monoganglioside GM1, which stimulates SK, is cardioprotective in part through increased generation of S1P that protects myocytes by diverse mechanisms. Because protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon activation… (More)


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