Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a ligand of the human gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 family of constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors.

Abstract

Five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for the lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) have been cloned and characterized so far. We report here about the identification of gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 as additional members of the S1P-GPCR family. When expressed transiently in HEK293 cells, gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 confer constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) similar in amplitude to that seen with fully activated G(alpha)(s)-coupled receptors. Culturing the transfected cells in medium with charcoal-stripped serum (devoid of lipids) significantly reduces cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, suggesting a lipid-like ligand. A library containing 200 bioactive lipids was applied in functional assays recording intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. S1P and dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (DHS1P) were identified as functional activators exhibiting nanomolar EC(50) values. In the presence of the S1P and LPA receptor antagonist suramin, gpr3-, gpr6- and gpr12-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization via S1P is enhanced. Besides constitutive activation of G(alpha)(s) type of G proteins, all three receptors are capable of constitutively activating inhibitory G(alpha)(i/o) proteins: (i) in the presence of pertussis toxin, gpr3-, gpr6- and gpr12-mediated stimulation of AC is enhanced; and (ii) overexpression of G(alpha)(i) significantly reduces the stimulatory action on intracellular cAMP levels. Agonist (S1P)-mediated internalization can be visualized in intact HEK293 cells using a gpr6 green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. In summary, our data suggest that gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 are a family of constitutively active receptors with dual coupling to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(i) type of G proteins. Constitutive activation of AC and mobilization of [Ca(2+)](i) can be modulated by the sphingophospholipids S1P and DHS1P, adding three additional members to the family of S1P receptors.

0100200'04'05'06'07'08'09'10'11'12'13'14'15'16'17
Citations per Year

942 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 942 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@article{Uhlenbrock2002Sphingosine1I, title={Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a ligand of the human gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 family of constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors.}, author={Kirsten Uhlenbrock and Hans Gassenhuber and Evi Kostenis}, journal={Cellular signalling}, year={2002}, volume={14 11}, pages={941-53} }