Sperm whale clicks: directionality and source level revisited.

@article{Mhl2000SpermWC,
  title={Sperm whale clicks: directionality and source level revisited.},
  author={Bertel M{\o}hl and Magnus Wahlberg and Peter Teglberg Madsen and Lee A. Miller and Annemarie Surlykke},
  journal={The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year={2000},
  volume={107 1},
  pages={
          638-48
        }
}
In sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey [in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 (1972), pp. 397-417] ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex. A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not… 
SPERM WHALE TRUMPET SOUNDS
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Sperm whale recordings collected in the Mediterranean Sea with a towed array and digital tags were used to describe the temporal and spectral characteristics of trumpets, a series of repeated units made of an amplitude modulated tonal waveform with a complex harmonic structure.
Sound production in neonate sperm whales (L)
TLDR
It is demonstrated that sperm whale clicks are produced at the anterior placed monkey lips, thereby substantiating a key point in the modified Norris and Harvey theory and supporting the unifying theory of sound production in odontocetes.
The monopulsed nature of sperm whale clicks.
TLDR
On-axis click properties support previous work proposing the nose of sperm whales to operate as a generator of sound.
Sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) do not react to sounds from detonators.
  • P. Madsen, B. Møhl
  • Medicine, Physics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 2000
A number of observations show that sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) react to various man-made pulses with moderate source levels. The behavioral responses are described to vary from silence to
Vocal behavior of male sperm whales: why do they click?
TLDR
The results of this study suggest that usual clicks and creaks are both used for echolocation purposes, the former to gather information about acoustically reflective features and the latter to detect prey.
Measuring sperm whales from their clicks: stability of interpulse intervals and validation that they indicate whale length.
TLDR
As expected, IPIs varied significantly among individuals, and most individuals showed significant increases in IPIs over several years, suggesting growth.
Male sperm whale acoustic behavior observed from multipaths at a single hydrophone.
TLDR
The authors propose a passive acoustic technique requiring only one hydrophone to investigate the acoustic behavior of free-ranging sperm whales, and suggest that sperm whales might, like some small odontocetes, control click level and rhythm.
Variation in sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) coda vocalizations and social structure in the North Atlantic Ocean
This study aimed at complementing studies of sperm whale social and vocal behaviour that were restricted to the Pacific Ocean. The characteristic multi-pulsed structure of sperm whale clicks allows
The function of male sperm whale slow clicks in a high latitude habitat: communication, echolocation, or prey debilitation?
TLDR
Some slow clicks were emitted in seemingly repetitive temporal patterns supporting the hypothesis that the function for slow clicks on the feeding grounds is long range communication between males, possibly relaying information about individual identity or behavioral states.
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Sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) do not react to sounds from detonators.
  • P. Madsen, B. Møhl
  • Medicine, Physics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 2000
A number of observations show that sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) react to various man-made pulses with moderate source levels. The behavioral responses are described to vary from silence to
Evaluation of a method for determining the length of sperm whales (Physeter catodon) from their vocalizations
TLDR
Variability in IPIs in the clicks of a single whale is acceptably low though there is a tendency for low and high values to occur in runs, and there is no clear trend for IPI to alter significantly with the whale's depth or with the time since leaving the surface.
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The function ofThe spermaceti organ of the sperm whale is studied using a model of its acoustic system to allow sound signal production especially useful for long range echolocofion in the deep sea.
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TLDR
The frequencies at which the multiples emerge in male and female clicks supports the idea of air cavities in the sperm whale head acting as sound reflectors, although the magnitude of the second pulse at high frequencies suggests some form of off axis distortion.
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Sounds produced and reflected by sperm whales (Physeter catodon) have been recorded by a sonobuoy array deployed from an oceanographic aircraft and analyzed for source level and target strength. Mean
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Target strengths of a submerged target, believed to be a sperm whale, Physeter catodon, were measured with the use of a calibrated passive sonobuoy and explosive charges. Measurements of 148 sperm
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The echlocation signals of two Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were measured while the animals were involved in a target‐detection experiment conducted in open waters. The time
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It is shown that Simmons' experiments cannot be treated as a simple estimation of distance, but require at least two or four echolocation sounds for one decision, and the performance of the bat in both experiments is much worse than predicted for a coherent and a semicoherent receiver type.
Positioning accuracy of a large‐aperture hydrophone array for sperm whale research
Source positioning accuracy of a large‐aperture (1 km) hydrophone array was investigated, using 2‐D and 3‐D algorithms. The array was used for positioning and SL determination of sperm whales off the
Distinctive vocalizations from mature male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus)
Groups of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) were tracked acoustically off the Galapagos Islands between February and April 1985. In total, 716 h were spent in visual or acoustic contact with th...
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